Summary: This Review discusses how animals living in a world of microscopic debris, ranging from dust, pollen and dew to insidious parasites like mites and bacteria stay clean.
Highlighted article: Consistent with observations on unihemispherically sleeping cetaceans and birds, saltwater crocodiles use unilateral eye closure for vigilance, raising the possibility that crocodilians may also sleep with one half of their brain at a time.
Summary: Swift feather roughness enhances boundary layer mixing, which reduces flow separation during low Reynolds number glides, enabling swifts to attain high glide performance with rough wings.
Summary: Walking and running are not simply dependent on velocity, but are controlled by the CNS as two completely distinct forms of locomotion in humans.
Summary: Imidacloprid causes a reduction in honey bee aversive olfactory learning of a biting stimulus delivered by a robo-predator.
The rectal complex and Malpighian tubules of the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni): regional variations in Na+ and K+ transport and cation reabsorption by secondary cells
Highlighted article: Scanning ion-selective electrode technique analysis of the intact excretory system of cabbage looper larvae reveals regional variations in Na+ and K+ transport and a novel function for the secondary cells.
In vitro strain in human metacarpal bones during striking: testing the pugilism hypothesis of hominin hand evolution
Summary: Recorded strains in the metacarpal bones during striking support the hypothesis that a clenched fist substantially reduces strain in the bones of the hand and therefore reduces the risk of fracture.
Oxidative phosphorylation efficiency, proton conductance and reactive oxygen species production of liver mitochondria correlates with body mass in frogs
Summary: Key bioenergetics parameters of mitochondria (proton leak, ATP production efficiency and reactive oxygen species production) are correlated with body mass in frogs.
Feeding kinematics and performance of basal otariid pinnipeds, Steller sea lions and northern fur seals: implications for the evolution of mammalian feeding
Summary: Steller sea lions use both suction and biting when foraging but northern fur seals are constrained to a biting feeding mode, which may be ancestral for this clade.
Hydrostatic pressure affects selective tidal stream transport in the North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon)
Summary: North Sea brown shrimp perform selective tidal stream transport (STST) activity under the influence of cyclic pressure and ‘remember’ the tidal cycle from the field for 1.5 days.
Fish embryos on land: terrestrial embryo deposition lowers oxygen uptake without altering growth or survival in the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus
Highlighted Article: Terrestrially reared embryos from the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus consume less oxygen and reach hatching competency with larger yolk reserves relative to embryos reared in water.
Mixed input to olfactory glomeruli from two subsets of ciliated sensory neurons does not impede relay neuron specificity in the crucian carp
Summary: Despite receiving mixed olfactory sensory neuron innervation, mitral cell axons in the crucian carp are selectively labelled, suggesting that they project the mixed inputs separately to the telencephalon.
Physiological tradeoffs may underlie the evolution of hypoxia tolerance and exercise performance in sunfish (Centrarchidae)
Summary: Tradeoffs between hypoxia tolerance and exercise performance in fish arise from the cumulative influence of a variety of respiratory and metabolic traits involved in oxygen transport and utilization.
Running, hopping and trotting: tuning step frequency to the resonant frequency of the bouncing system favors larger animals
Summary: The rebound of the body in hopping, trotting and running appears to be more elastic in larger, more-compliant animals.
The mechanosensory lateral line is used to assess opponents and mediate aggressive behaviors during territorial interactions in an African cichlid fish
Highlighted Article: Hydrodynamic cues are needed for assessment and non-contact fight behaviors during territorial interactions in an African cichlid fish.
Summary: In Drosophila, motion control of appendages allows flies to trim out imbalances in moment generation caused by wing damage and abnormal asymmetries of the flight apparatus.
Summary: Hyperpolarized 13C NMR is used to measure the kinetics of lactate with 3 s resolution in skeletal muscle to validate the tenability of the intracellular lactate shuttle and glycogen shunt models.
Rapid maturation of the muscle biochemistry that supports diving in Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens)
Summary: Age-specific muscle biochemistry of the major locomotor muscles in walruses enables estimates to be made of their aerobic dive limits and theoretical bottom times relative to age and dive depth.
Summary: Flatback sea turtles nesting in tropical regions can withstand high-temperature incubation.
Dietary calcium deficiency in laying ducks impairs eggshell quality by suppressing shell biomineralization
Summary: A low-calcium diet in laying ducks impairs eggshell microstructure by suppressing calcium supply and transport, outer membrane formation and calcite crystal calcification.