Small intestinal hydrolysis of plant glucosides: higher glucohydrolase activities in rodents than passerine birds
Summary: The capacity of birds to hydrolyze glucosides and release toxins conjugated to sugars, which was uncertain, is shown to be low compared with that of rodents.
METHODS & TECHNIQUES
Summary: The major constituents of bird eggshells (mineral, matrix, pigment) can be analysed without sample destruction, which is ideal for ancient and other precious eggshell specimens.
Highlighted Article: Ultraviolet B radiation differentially affects the performance of the glycoprotein glue coating the capture spiral of orb-weaving spiders from habitats with varying levels of natural exposure.
Negative energy balance in a male songbird, the Abert's towhee, constrains the testicular endocrine response to luteinizing hormone stimulation
Summary: Energy deficiency in an adult male songbird has no detectable effect on the development of reproductive morphology, but constrains the endocrine responsiveness of the testes.
Food restriction negatively affects multiple levels of the reproductive axis in male house finches, Haemorhous mexicanus
Summary: Food restriction in a wild-caught, seasonally breeding songbird inhibits full activation of the reproductive system, with effects at both the brain and gonadal level.
Summary: Finite element analysis of hard-prey crushing teeth demonstrates morphological features important for resisting tooth failure.
Interaction of osmoregulatory and acid–base compensation in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) during exposure to aquatic hypercarbia and elevated salinity
Summary: Acidosis recovery in hypercapnic sturgeon associates with plasma Na+ accumulation prior to and plasma Cl− removal following osmotic recovery, as osmoregulatory requirements transition from ion uptake to ion excretion throughout seawater acclimation.
Mating for male-derived prostaglandin: a functional explanation for the increased fecundity of mated female crickets?
Summary: Male-derived substances transferred in the seminal fluids of crickets provide a functional explanation for the fitness benefits females gain from mating at high rates.
Bumblebee flight performance in cluttered environments: effects of obstacle orientation, body size and acceleration
Highlighted Article: Large bumblebees exhibit impaired flight performance in cluttered environments compared with small bees; this is not due to the scaling of acceleration performance, however, and may be driven by the allometry of collision avoidance.
Changes in the chemical profile of cephalic salivary glands of Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera, Meliponini) workers are phase related
Summary: The chemical composition of cephalic salivary (labial) glands of Scaptotrigona postica varies according to the worker's life phase and tasks performed.
Serotonin, but not dopamine, controls the stress response and anxiety-like behavior in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii
Summary: After stress, crayfish brain 5-HT levels increase, which induces anxiety-like behavior (ALB) but the level of dopamine does not change, and in contrast to 5-HT, injection of dopamine does not trigger a metabolic response or ALB.
Summary: The pericardium provides structural support for the hearts of tunicates.
Highlighted Article: Adult caddis flies use two jumping strategies: first, take-off is propelled by the middle and hind legs; second, the same leg movements are combined with wing movements.
Summary: Experiments with transparent microstructured substrates show that the compliance of cockroach adhesive pads is age dependent and increases when shear forces are applied.
Summary: Oyster larvae exhibit behavioral responses to flow-induced rotation of the body relative to gravity; in turbulence, these responses will enhance control of vertical motion.
Summary: Baikal seals in Lake Baikal, Russia, exhibit an interesting type of dive, called drift dives, presumably as a means of resting and food processing in open waters.
Summary: Honeybee navigation is affected by ingesting traces of glyphosate – the most widely used herbicide worldwide – with potential long-term negative consequences for colony-foraging success.
Summary: Female Amblyomma hebraeum grow cuticle post-moult prior to feeding; mechanical analysis suggests that dopamine but not water content enables stretch and thinning of cuticle in the rapid phase of engorgement.