The morphologies and passive electrical parameters of fibres in two eye muscles of a surface- and a cave-dwelling crayfish were compared. In the cave-dwelling form the muscles contained fewer fibres, of less diameter, and hence had a smaller cross-sectional area. Current-voltage relationships were similar in both species. Input resistance was higher in the cave-dweller, but the difference was not as great as would be expected on the basis of geometry alone. Accordingly, the specific membrane resistance of muscle fibres in the cave-dweller is 50–60% smaller than that in the surface-dweller. This may account partially for the observation that identified excitatory junctional potentials in muscles of cave- and surface dwellers have similar amplitudes. We conclude that a functional oculomotor system is maintained in cave-dwelling crayfish, and that this system confers some positive selective advantage.

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