In this study, interlimb coordination in the cockroach during slow walking (2–7 steps/s) is described for a variety of substrate conditions. During normal free-walking, the animal utilizes an alternating tripod gait (both ipsilateral and contralateral phase close to 0.50). The protraction/retraction ratio varies linearly with walking speed. When tethered on a supported ball, the ipsilateral phase ranges from 0.32 to 0.46 at walking speeds of 2-7 steps/s, and contralateral phase is constant at 0.53. Protraction/retraction ratios are normal in this case. Blind free-walking animals use a gait which is indistinguishable from normal, but the protraction/retraction ratio is constant over speeds of 2-7 steps/s. When walking down an inclined plane (45°), the gait resembles ball-walking, with an average ipsilateral phase of 0.43 and contralateral phase of 0.53. These alterations of gait under different substrate conditions can be related to the animal's responses to loading, gravity, and steering control system.

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