Data from 12 bird species reveal that skin surface area averages 23 % larger than the external surface area of the plumage. Use of skin surface area instead of the area of the external plumage surface may produce large errors in heat-transfer analyses.
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JOURNAL ARTICLE| 01 October 1978
The Relationship of the External Surface Area of Birds to Skin Surface Area and Body Mass
GLENN E. WALSBERG
Department of Zoology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164, U.S.A.
Revision Received: 24 Jan 1978
Online Issn: 1477-9145
Print Issn: 0022-0949
© 1978 by Company of Biologists
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GLENN E. WALSBERG; The Relationship of the External Surface Area of Birds to Skin Surface Area and Body Mass. J Exp Biol 1 October 1978; 76 (1): 185–189. doi: https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.76.1.185
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