Changes in live weight and in the water, Na+ and K+ content of the tissues and faeces have been examined in adult male Periplaneta americana in various states of hydration. During dehydration the haemolymph volume decreases markedly, but the Na+ and K+ concentrations rise only slightly. Less than 25% of the Na+ removed from the haemolymph during dehydration was found to be excreted, but the K+ excreted during dehydration was in excess of that removed from the haemolymph alone. It seems likely that the major tissue for regulating the haemolymph Na+ during dehydration and rehydration is the fat body, in which dehydration causes an increase, and rehydration a decrease, in the Na:K ratio. The Na+ and K+ content of the fat body was found to be variable in both hydrated and dehydrated animals and absolute changes in the ion content of the tissue could not be estimated because of unknown changes in the amount of food reserves and excretory products.

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