The mechanical action and innervation of the major flight muscles of dragonflies are described. All flight muscles investigated are innervated by at least 3 motor neurones and one by as many as 15. Cell bodies of motor neurones that innervate the same muscle are clustered together and have similar, widespread dendritic branching patterns. Motor neurones of leg muscles have greater variety in cell body size and position than the major flight motor neurones. Striking similarities between the positions of cell bodies of motor neurones in dragonflies and the positions of homologous motor neurones in other insects raise interesting questions about the evolution of insect nervous systems.

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