When Carcinus was exposed to 20 μ-mol l−1 cadmium, the haemolymph cadmium level was initially dependent upon the salinity of the external medium. After 14 days the mean haemolymph cadmium level in 50% s.w. animals was nearly twice that of 100% s.w. animals. This trend was not sustained, however, and the situation was complicated by occasional inconsistent values.

In both in vivo and in vitro conditions nearly all the haemolymph cadmium becomes bound to haemolymph protein within a few days. The relationship between haemolymph cadmium, copper and protein concentration has been investigated. Although the latter are highly correlated with each other, cadmium formed a significant positive relationship with haemolymph copper (r = 0.523) and protein (r = 0.533) only after 3–4 weeks uptake. Exposure to 20 μ-mol l−1 cadmium has no obvious effects on haemolymph protein and copper concentrations, which are clearly dependent on feeding status. Mortalities among experimental animals were often preceded by a rise in haemolymph cadmium concentration. This is usually seen before there are any obvious signs of tissue breakdown.

Urine cadmium loss is probably unimportant as a pathway for the elimination of this metal. Urine cadmium concentrations often exceeded serum cadmium levels indicating that cadmium may sometimes be eliminated in bound form.

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