The IXth and the Xth cranial nerves in Anguilla anguilla were transected, and the effects upon ion and water balance were studied in fresh water and sea water, and during transfer from fresh water and vice versa. In fresh water there is a slow demineralization due to an excess loss of Na and Cl ions. During freshwater to seawater transfer the eel survives only for 4–5 days. The fish do not drink and Na efflux does not increase enough to extrude excess ions. In sea water the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves are necessary for the maintenance of the hydromineral balance. Denervation is followed by an increase in plasma ion concentrations. Na fluxes are not modified and increased water loss is not compensated by drinking. The rapid reduction of Na efflux during transfer from sea water to fresh water is not modified by denervation.

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