1. Measurements of the blood Na concentration and transepithelial electrical potential (T.E.P.) across Uca pugilator acclimated to sea water indicate that Na is maintained out of electrochemical equilibrium with sea water. The resulting net Na influx as well as the sodium gain due to ingestion of the medium must be balanced by extrarenal Na extrusion. 2. The small T.E.P. (−0.7 mV) and the ‘transport numbers’ of Na and Cl indicate that the permeability to these ions is equivalent. 3. Removal of external K results in a significant stimulation of unidirectional Na efflux that is dependent upon external Na but is not inhibited by ouabain. 4. Transfer of Uca to K and Na-free sea water results in a 54% decline in unidirectional efflux, which is not due to T.E.P. changes. Readdition of 25mM-K stimulates Na efflux much more than can be accounted for by changes in the T.E.P. Readdition of 25mM-Na to potassium-free sea water does not change the Na efflux. 5. The results indicate that Na extrusion by Uca is via a Na/K exchange mechanism which partially inhibits Na/Na exchange. Cessation of Na/K exchange (in K-free sea water) removes this inhibition and allows rapid Na/Na exchange. It is not known whether Na/K and Na/Na exchange are via the same or parallel carrier systems.

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