1. The rates of post-flight cooling in 25 saturniid moths of 8 genera ranging in weight from 81 to 2650 mg were measured and compared with cooling rates in sphingids, birds and mammals. 2. The initial and terminal cooling rates of the saturniids did not differ significantly. 3. Large saturniids have relatively smaller thoraxes than small ones. 4. In saturniids the rate of post-flight cooling is inversely related both to thoracic volume and total weight. 5. Cooling rate is less dependent on thoracic volume in saturniids than in sphingids. 6. Weight-specific conductance calculated on the basis of total weight, shows that moths are not as well insulated as birds or mammals. However, when considered on the basis of thoracic weight, the weight-specific conductance of saturniids and sphingids closely approximates that predicted by the regression of weight-specific conductance on total body weight in birds and mammals. 7. Since the insulation of saturniids and sphingids is no more effective for animals of their size than is that of birds and mammals, their high body temperatures during activity appear to depend primarily on high levels of heat production.

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