1. The reflex activity elicited by movement of the mero-carpopodite (M-C) joint in the cheliped of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus is investigated and the role of the different proprioceptors (chordotonal and myochordotonal organs) separately studied. 2. The reflex discharge involves mainly the tonic motoneurones of the extensor (E), the flexor (F) and the accessory flexor (AF) muscles. 3. M-C joint posture is also regulated by the cuticular stress detector (CSD2) afferents: they increase mainly the F discharge and secondarily the AF command. 4. The activity of the motor axons supplying the muscles of the meropodite can be also influenced by a variety of natural stimuli applied to other appendages. The effect usually produced is a general flexion reaction which is characterized by a reciprocity between E and F involving both central and peripheral mechanisms. 5. The AF muscle is innervated by two antagonistic motoneurones, an excitatory neurone functionally linked in its discharge with one of the four excitors supplying F and an inhibitory motoneurone, common with E. The resulting competitive effect between these two neurones has been recorded intracellularly in AF muscle fibres. 6. The role of the myochordotonal organ (MCO) in the crayfish is discussed. In particular the modulation of the AF command in relation to the discharges of the motor nerves to the main muscle E and F is studied.

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