1. Protein synthesis occurs at a high rate in the ovaries of maturing Octopus vulgaris and can be measured from the incorporation of [14C]leucine in vivo and in isolated groups of eggs in vitro. 2. Removal of the optic glands in vivo 1--3 days prior to testing markedly reduces amino acid incorporation in vivo or in vitro. After 5 days in vivo incorporation stops. 3. The rate of incorporation in vitro is increased by the addition of optic gland extract. 4. Analysis of the kinetics of leucine uptake and incorporation in vitro indicates that the hormone has an effect on the inward transport of leucine which is independent of its action on protein synthesis. 5. Electron-microscope studies of the follicle cells and ova show that the former are the site of protein synthesis. 6. Changes in either uptake or incorporation into protein by the follicle cells can be used as a qualitative biolobical assay for the optic gland hormone. Uptake is very easy to measure but incorporation is the more sensitive parameter. Either is potentially suitable as a quantitative assay for this and perhaps also for other molluscan gonadotropins.

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