Larvae of Aedes campestris ingest and absorb into their haemolymph large quantities of the sulphate-rich water in which they live, yet they are able to maintain the sulphate content of the haemolymph well below that of the environment.
Tracer experiments showed that sulphate regulation was not achieved by deposition of precipitates in the tissues.
In vitro preparations of Malpighian tubules secrete sulphate ions actively against both a three times concentration gradient and an electrical potential difference of 20 mV. This transport is half saturated at about 10 mM.
The rate of sulphate secretion by the Malpighian tubules is sufficient to remove all of the sulphate ingested by larvae living in waters which contain less than 100 mM of this anion. At higher concentrations, sulphate ions are probably also excreted elsewhere, perhaps by the rectum or anal papillae.
Active Transport of Sulphate Ions by the Malpighian Tubules of Larvae of the Mosquito Aedes Campestris
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S. H. P. MADDRELL, J. E. PHILLIPS; Active Transport of Sulphate Ions by the Malpighian Tubules of Larvae of the Mosquito Aedes Campestris. J Exp Biol 1 April 1975; 62 (2): 367–378. doi: https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.62.2.367
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