1. In Gonactinia well-developed ectodermal muscle and nerve-net extend over the column and crown and play an important part in the anemone's behaviour.

2. Common sequences of behaviour are described. Feeding is a series of reflex contractions of different muscles by means of which plankton is caught and swallowed. Walking, in the form of brief looping steps, differs markedly in that it continues after interruptions. Anemones also swim with rapid tentacle strokes after contact with certain nudibranch molluscs, strong mechanical disturbance or electrical stimulation.

3. Swimming is attributed to temporary excitation of a diffuse ectodermal pacemaker possibly situated in the upper column.

4. From the results of electrical and mechanical stimulation it is concluded that the endodermal neuromuscular system resembles that of other anemones but that the properties of the ectodermal neuromuscular system require a new explanation. The size and spread of responses to electric shocks vary with intensity, latency is variable and there is a tendency to after-discharge. There is precise radial localization, for example touching a tentacle or the column causes it to bend towards or away from the stimulus.

5. A model to explain these and other features includes multipolar nerve cells closely linked to the nerve-net which would act as intermediate motor units, causing local contraction of the ectodermal muscle. This scheme can be applied to other swimming anemones but there is no evidence that it holds for sea anemones generally.

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