1. Survival and regulation in sea-water media was studied in the freshwater caddises Limnephilus stigma and Anabolia nervosa.
2. The majority of larvae did not survive for more than a few days at external salt concentrations greater than about 6o mM./l. NaCl.
3. In sea-water media the haemolymph osmotic pressure increased to remain slightly hyper-osmotic to the medium. The haemolymph sodium level also increased to remain slightly hypertonic to the medium, but the chloride level was maintained hypotonic until just prior to death of the larvae.
4. When the haemolymph chloride concentration was raised above the normal level, the Malpighian tubule-rectal system elaborated fluid in which the chloride concentration was hypertonic to the haemolymph. The system is highly sensitive to changes in the haemolymph chloride level.
5. The regulation of body-fluid composition in the freshwater caddises is compared with that found previously in the euryhaline larvae of Limnephilus affinis. It is suggested that the maintenance of a low haemolymph sodium concentration in L. affinis larvae is an important part of the adaptation for survival in salt water.