1. Adult brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) of both sea-run (sea trout) and fresh-water stream (brown trout) forms were captured in the vicinity of Aberdeen and acclimatized to full-strength sea water for periods of up to 5 months.

2. Blood serum samples from these fish were analysed for freezing-point depression, chloride, sodium and potassium concentrations.

3. The patterns of regulation of these concentrations are very nearly the same in both forms. Brown trout and sea trout, at least in eastern Scotland, thus appear to be virtually identical in osmotic and ionic regulatory abilities. However, there is a possibility that there is a difference between the two forms with respect to mechanisms controlling blood acid-base balance.

4. The patterns of regulation shown by Scottish fish are the same as those shown by American hatchery fish treated similarly. The different populations of the species seem not to have diverged significantly from one another in this regard after many generations of more or less complete genetic isolation.

5. The species Salmo trutta is strongly homoiosmotic. Internal concentrations are either unchanged or increase by less than 10% above fresh-water levels with long-term acclimatizations to half and full sea water. The brown trout is the first salmonid species known to regulate so well.

Contribution number 927 from the Woods Hole Occanographic Institution.