I. The effects of limb amputation and the cutting of commissures on the movements of the cockroach Blatta orientalis have been investigated with the aid of cinematography. Detailed analyses of changes in posture and rhythm of leg movements are given.
2. It is shown that quite marked changes occur following the amputation of a single leg or the cutting of a single commissure between the thoracic ganglia.
3. Changes following the amputation of a single leg are immediate and are such that the support normally provided by the missing leg is taken over by the two remaining legs on that side. Compensatory movements are also found in the contralateral legs.
4. When two legs of opposite sides are amputated it has been confirmed that the diagonal sequence tends to be adopted, but this is not invariably true. Besides alterations in the rhythm which this may involve, there are again adaptive modifications in the movements of the limbs with respect to the body.
5. When both comrnissures between the meso- and metathoracic ganglia are cut, the hind pair of legs fall out of rhythm with the other four legs. The observations on the effects of cutting commissures stress the importance of intersegmental pathways in co-ordination.
6. It is shown that all modifications following the amputation of legs may be related to the altered mechanical conditions. Some of the important factors involved in normal co-ordination are discussed, and it is suggested that the altered movements would be produced by the operation of these factors under the new conditions. It is concluded that the sensory inflow to the central nervous system is of major importance in the co-ordination of normal movement.