Catecholamines and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides, some of the central regulators of the stress-response systems of vertebrates, are also present in invertebrates. However, studies are needed to determine how these hormones participate in the organisation of neuroendocrine stress-response axes in invertebrates. Our present work provides evidence for the presence of an adrenergic stress-response system in the oyster Crassostrea gigas. Noradrenaline and dopamine are released into the circulation in response to stress. Storage and release of these hormones take place in neurosecretory cells presenting morphological and biochemical similarities with vertebrate chromaffin cells. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that applications of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine or carbachol caused no significant release of noradrenaline or dopamine. Moreover, the nicotinic antagonists hexamethonium and α -bungarotoxin and the muscarinic antagonist atropine caused no significant inhibition of catecholamine release in stressed oysters. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) induced a significant release of noradrenaline, but the release of dopamine in response to ACTH was not significant. These results suggest that, unlike that of vertebrates, the adrenergic stress-response system of oysters is not under the control of acetylcholine and that other factors, such as the neuropeptide ACTH, might control this system.

Anctil
M.
,
De Waele
J.-P.
,
Miron
M.-J.
,
Pani
A. K.
(
1990
).
1254Monoamines in the nervous system of the tube-worm Chaetopterus variopedatus (Polychaeta): Biochemical detection and serotonin immunoreactivity.
Cell Tissue Res
259
,
81
–.
Bachere
E.
,
Chagot
D.
,
Grizel
H.
(
1988
).
Separation of Crassostrea gigas hemocytes by density gradient centrifugation and counterflow centrifugal elutriation.
Dev. Comp. Immunol
12
,
549
–.
Bernier
N. J.
,
Perry
S. F.
(
1996
).
Control of catecholamine and serotonin release from the chromaffin tissue of the Atlantic hagfish.
J. Exp. Biol
199
,
2485
–.
Carpenter
D.
,
Breese
G.
,
Schanberg
S.
,
Kopin
I.
(
1971
).
Serotonin and dopamine: distribution and accumulation in Aplysia nervous and non-nervous tissues.
J. Neurosci
2
,
49
–.
Chrousos
G. P.
,
Gold
P. W.
(
1992
).
The concepts of stress and stress system disorders. Overview of physical and behavioural homeostasis.
J. Am. Med. Assoc
267
,
1244
–.
Domart-Coulon
I.
,
Doumenc
D.
,
Auzoux-Bordenave
S.
,
Le Fichant
Y.
(
1994
).
Identification of media supplements that improve the viability of primarily cell cultures of Crassostrea gigas oysters.
Cytotechnol
16
,
109
–.
Furness
J. B.
,
Costa
M.
,
Wilson
A. J.
(
1977
).
Water-stable fluorophores, produced by reaction with aldehyde solutions, for the histochemical localization of catechol-and indolethylamines.
Histochem
52
,
159
–.
Gebauer
M.
,
Versen
B.
(
1998
).
Cholinergic mechanisms in the neurocontrol of the branchial heart of the cephalopod Sepia officinalis L.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol
119
,
13
–.
Gobbi
H.
,
Barbosa
A. J. A.
,
Teixeira
V. P. A.
,
Almeida
H. O.
(
1991
).
Immunocytochemical identification of neuroendocrine markers in human cardiac paraganglion-like structures.
Histochem
95
,
337
–.
Goldstein
D. S.
,
Feuerstein
C.
,
Izzo
J. L.
,
Kopin
I. J.
,
Keiser
H. R.
(
1981
).
Validity and reliability of liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection for measuring plasma levels of noradrenaline and epinephrine in man.
Life Sci
28
,
467
–.
Gustafsson
M. K. S.
,
Eriksson
K.
(
1991
).
Localisation and identification of catecholamines in the nervous system of Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda).
Parasitol. Res
77
,
498
–.
Hart
B. B.
,
Stanford
G. G.
,
Ziegler
M. G.
,
Lake
R.
,
Chernow
B.
(
1989
).
Catecholamines: Study of interspecies variation.
Crit. Care Med
17
,
1203
–.
Hill
R. B.
,
Kuwasawa
K.
(
1990
).
Neuromuscular transmission in molluscan hearts.
Zool. Sci
7
,
999
–.
LeRoith
D.
,
Liotta
A. S.
,
Roth
J.
,
Shiloach
J.
,
Lewis
M. E.
,
Pert
C. B.
,
Krieger
D. T.
(
1982
).
Corticotropin and-endorphin-like materials are native to unicellular organisms.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
79
,
2086
–.
Livett
B. G.
,
Marley
P. D.
(
1993
).
Noncholinergic control of adrenal catecholamine secretion.
J. Anat
183
,
277
–.
Lopez
M. G.
,
Montiel
C.
,
Herrero
C. J.
,
Garcia-Palomero
E.
,
Mayorgas
I.
,
Hernandez-Guijo
J. M.
,
Villarroya
M.
,
Olivares
R.
,
Gandia
L.
,
McIntosh
J. M.
,
Olivera
B. M.
,
Garcia
A. G.
(
1998
).
Unmasking the functions of the chromaffin cell7nicotinic receptor by using short pulses of acetylcholine and selective blockers.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
95
,
14184
–.
Osada
M.
,
Nomura
T.
(
1989
).
Seasonal variations of catecholamine levels in the tissues of the Japanese oyster, Crassostrea gigas.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol
93
,
171
–.
Ottaviani
E.
,
Caselgrandi
E.
,
Franchini
A.
,
Franceschi
C.
(
1993
).
CRF provokes the release of norepinephrine by hemocytes of Viviparus ater (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia): further evidence in favour of the evolutionary hypothesis of the ‘mobile immune brain’.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun
193
,
446
–.
Ottaviani
E.
,
Cossarizza
A.
,
Ortolani
C.
,
Monti
D.
,
Fransceschi
C.
(
1991
).
ACTH-like molecules in gastropod molluscs: a possible role in ancestral immune response and stress.
Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B
245
,
215
–.
Ottaviani
E.
,
Franceschi
C.
(
1996
).
The neuroendocrinology of stress from invertebrates to man.
Prog. Neurobiol
48
,
421
–.
Ottaviani
E.
,
Franchini
A.
,
Hanukoglu
I.
(
1998
).
In situ localization of ACTH receptor-like mRNA in molluscan and human immunocyte.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci
54
,
139
–.
Pacak
K.
,
Palkovits
M.
,
Yadid
G.
,
Kvetnansky
R.
,
Kopin
I. J.
,
Goldstein
D. S.
(
1998
).
Heterogeneous neurochemical responses to different stressors: a test of Selye's doctrine of nonspecificity.
Am. J. Physiol
275
,
1247
–.
Pani
A. K.
,
Anctil
M.
(
1994
).
Quantitative survey of biogenic amines, their precursors and metabolites in the coelenterate Renilla koellikeri.
Biogenic Amines
10
,
161
–.
Pani
K. A.
,
Croll
R. P.
(
1995
).
Distribution of catecholamines, indoleamines and their precursors and metabolites in the scallop, Placopecten magellanicus (Bivalvia, Pectinidae).
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol
15
,
371
–.
Perry
S. F.
,
Fritsche
R.
,
Thomas
S.
(
1993
).
Storage and release of catecholamines from the chromaffin tissue of the atlantic hagfish Myxine glutinosa.
J. Exp. Biol
183
,
165
–.
Reid
S. G.
,
Bernier
N. J.
,
Perry
S. F.
(
1998
).
The adrenergic response in fish: control of catecholamine storage and release.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol
120
,
1
–.
Rosza
K. S.
(
1984
).
The pharmacology of molluscan neurons.
Prog. Neurobiol
23
,
79
–.
Salzet
M.
,
Salzet-Raveillon
B.
,
Cocquerelle
C.
,
Verger-Bocquet
M.
,
Pryor
S. C.
,
Rialas
C. M.
,
Laurent
V.
,
Stefano
G.
(
1997
).
Leech immunocytes contain proopiomelanocortin: nitric oxide mediates hemolymph proopiomelanocortin processing.
J. Immunol
159
,
5400
–.
Selye
H.
(
1998
).
A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. 1936. (Classical Article).
J. Neuropsych. Clin. Neurosci
10
,
230
–.
Shimizu
T.
,
Mihara
M.
,
Takeda
N.
(
1991
).
High-performanceA. LACOSTEANDOTHERS1255 Adrenergic responses to stress of Crassostrea gigasliquid chromatography of biogenic amines in the corpus cardiacum of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana.
J. Chromatogr
539
,
193
–.
Sloley
B. D.
,
Juorio
A. V.
,
Durden
D. A.
(
1990
).
High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of monoamines and some of their-glutamyl conjugates produced by the brain and other tissues of Helix aspersa (Gastropoda).
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol
10
,
175
–.
Smith
S. A.
,
Nason
J.
,
Croll
R. P.
(
1998
).
Distribution of catecholamines in the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus.
Can. J. Zool
76
,
1254
–.
Stefano
G. B.
,
Digenis
A.
,
Spector
S.
,
Leung
M. K.
,
Bilfinger
T. V.
,
Makman
M. H.
,
Sharrer
B.
,
Abumrad
N. N.
(
1993
).
Opiate-like substances in an invertebrate, a novel opiate receptor on invertebrate and human immunocytes and a role in immunosuppression.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
90
,
11099
–.
Stefano
G. B.
,
Melchiorri
P.
,
Negri
L.
,
Hughes
T. K.
,
Sharrer
B.
(
1992
).
(D-Ala2)-Deltorphin I binding and pharmacological evidence for a special subtype of delta opioid receptor on human and invertebrate immune cells.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
89
,
9316
–.
Stefano
G. B.
,
Salzet
M.
(
1999
).
Invertebrate opioid precursors:evolutionary conservation and the significance of enzymatic processing.
Int. Rev. Cytol
187
,
261
–.
Stefano
G. B.
,
Salzet-Raveillon
B.
,
Salzet
M.
(
1999
).
Mytilus edulis hemolymph contains pro-opiomelanocortin: LPS and morphine stimulate differential processing.
Brain Res
63
,
340
–.
Takeda
N.
(
1992
).
Biogenic monoamine levels in the central nervous system of the sea hare, Aplysia kurodai.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol
103
,
511
–.
Tranzer
J.-P.
,
Richards
J. G.
(
1976
).
Ultrastructural cytochemistry of biogenic amines in nervous tissue: methodologic improvements.
J. Histochem. Cytochem
24
,
1178
–.
Voronezhskaya
E. E.
,
Hiripi
L.
,
Elekes
K.
,
Croll
R. P.
(
1999
).
Development of catecholaminergic neurons in the pond snail, Lymnea stagnalis. I. Embryonic development of dopamine-containing neurons and dopamine-dependent behaviors.
J. Comp. Neurol
404
,
285
–.
Wendelaar Bonga
S. E.
(
1997
).
The stress response in fish.
Physiol. Rev
77
,
591
–.
This content is only available via PDF.