The rate of fluid expulsion, R(CVC), from the contractile vacuole complex (CVC) of Paramecium multimicronucleatum was estimated from the volume of the contractile vacuoles (CVs) immediately before the start of fluid discharge and from the time elapsing between discharges. The R(CVC) increased when the cell was exposed to a strongly hypotonic solution and decreased in a weakly hypotonic solution. When the cell was exposed to an isotonic or a hypertonic solution, R(CVC) fell to zero. The time constant, tau, used to describe the change in R(CVC) in response to a change in external osmolarity shortened after a short-term exposure to a strongly hypotonic solution and lengthened after a short-term exposure to a less hypotonic solution. A remarkable lengthening of tau occurred after a short-term exposure to isotonic or hypertonic solution. Under natural conditions, mechanisms for controlling R(CVC) are effective in maintaining the cytosolic osmolarity hypertonic within a narrow concentration range despite changes in the external osmolarity, which is normally hypotonic to the cytosol. Cells exposed to an isotonic or hypertonic solution resumed CV activity when left in the solution for 12 h. The cytosolic osmolarity was found to increase and to remain hypertonic to the external solution. This will permit cells to continue to acquire water. The increase in the cytosolic osmolarity occurred in a stepwise fashion, rather than linearly, as the external osmolarity increased. That is, the cytosolic osmolarity first remained more-or-less constant at an increased level until the external osmolarity exceeded this level. Thereupon, the cytosolic osmolarity increased to a new higher level in 12 h, so that the cytosol again became hypertonic to the external solution and the cells resumed CV activity. These results imply that the cell needs to maintain water segregation activity even after it has been exposed to an isotonic or hypertonic environment. This supports the idea that the CVC might be involved not only in the elimination of excess cytosolic water but also in the excretion of some metabolic waste substances.
How external osmolarity affects the activity of the contractile vacuole complex, the cytosolic osmolarity and the water permeability of the plasma membrane in Paramecium multimicronucleatum
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C. Stock, R.D. Allen, Y. Naitoh; How external osmolarity affects the activity of the contractile vacuole complex, the cytosolic osmolarity and the water permeability of the plasma membrane in Paramecium multimicronucleatum. J Exp Biol 15 January 2001; 204 (2): 291–304. doi: https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.204.2.291
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