Gulf toadfish (Opsanus β) rapidly switch to excretion of urea as their main nitrogenous waste product under several laboratory conditions, including confinement to small volumes of water. Prior evidence suggested that the activities of two key enzymes of urea synthesis exhibited potentially different modes of upregulation during this switch, with carbamoyl phosphate synthethase III (CPSase III) activated allosterically by N-acetylglutamate, and glutamine synthetase (GSase) activated by increases in the concentration of protein. The present study was undertaken to examine additional aspects of the regulation of these enzymes. The sequence for O. beta CPSase III cDNA was obtained, and it was found to be similar to that of other piscine CPSases. The sequence also allowed us to develop riboprobes for CPSase III mRNA analysis using ribonuclease protection assays (RPAs). CPSase III mRNA was expressed in liver, muscle, kidney and intestine, in agreement with prior enzymatic measurements. Levels of CPSase III mRNA increased five- to tenfold (relative to beta-actin mRNA) in liver (but not muscle) following 48 h of confinement stress. Measured by western analysis using an antibody to chicken GSase, confined O. beta GSase protein concentrations increased eightfold over control levels, in agreement with prior and present measurements of increases in GSase activity. Furthermore, RPAs of GSase mRNA levels demonstrated an increase of fivefold during confinement.
Induction of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III and glutamine synthetase mRNA during confinement stress in gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta)
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H. Kong, N. Kahatapitiya, K. Kingsley, W.L. Salo, P.M. Anderson, Y.S. Wang, P.J. Walsh; Induction of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III and glutamine synthetase mRNA during confinement stress in gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta). J Exp Biol 15 January 2000; 203 (2): 311–320. doi: https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.203.2.311
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