The consequence of early thermal experience for subsequent growth patterns was investigated in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Spring- and autumn-running salmon were caught in upland (Baddoch) and lowland (Sheeoch) tributaries of the River Dee, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, respectively, on the final stages of their spawning migrations. The eggs were incubated at the simulated natural temperature regime of each stream, which was on average 2.8 degrees C lower for the Baddoch. The offspring, representing 11 families per population, were transferred at first feeding to constant environmental conditions (12–14 degrees C; 16h:8h light:dark photoperiod) and reared in replicate tanks. Salmon of both populations were longer and heavier at 6 and 12 weeks in fish initially reared under the cooler Baddoch regime. Length frequency distributions became bimodal after 18 weeks, and only the upper growth mode was studied. Modelling of length distributions at 40 weeks revealed significantly different patterns of muscle growth according to initial temperature regime, but only for the Sheeoch salmon. In fish of Sheeoch origin, significantly more white muscle fibres were recruited per mm(2) increase in myotomal cross-sectional area at Sheeoch than at Baddoch temperatures (P<0.01). After 40 weeks, the density of white fibres was 10.4 % higher in fish initially reared at the Sheeoch (533+/−6 mm(−2)) than at the Baddoch (483+/−5 mm(−2)) thermal regimes (means +/− s.e.m., 16 fish per group; P<0.001). Muscle satellite cells were identified using an antibody to c-met. At 24 weeks, the density of muscle satellite cells was 29 % higher in Sheeoch salmon reared to first feeding at the temperature of their natal stream than at cooler Baddoch temperatures (P<0.01). In contrast, the number and size distributions of white muscle fibres in the myotomes of Baddoch salmon were independent of early thermal experience.

REFERENCES

Abbot
K.
,
Friday
B. B.
,
Thaloor
D.
,
Murphy
T. J.
,
Pavlath
G. K.
(
1998
).
Activation and cellular localization of the cyclosporine A-sensitive transcription factor NF-AT in skeletal muscle cells
.
Mol. Biol. Cell
9
,
2905
–.
Cornelison
D. D. W.
,
Wold
B. J.
(
1997
).
Single-cell analysis of regulatory gene expression in quiescent and activated mouse skeletal muscle satellite cells
.
Dev. Biol
191
,
270
–.
Hayes
F. R.
,
Armstrong
F. H.
(
1942
).
Physical change in constituent parts of developing salmon eggs
.
Can. J. Res
20
,
90
–.
Johnston
I. A.
,
Cole
N. J.
,
Abercromby
M.
,
Vieira
V. L. A.
(
1998
).
Embryonic temperature modulates muscle growth characteristics in larval and juvenile herring
.
J. Exp. Biol
201
,
623
–.
Johnston
I. A.
,
McLay
H. A.
(
1997
).
Temperature and family effects on muscle cellularity at hatch and first feeding in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)
.
Can J. Zool
75
,
64
–.
Johnston
I. A.
,
McLay
H. A.
,
Abercromby
M.
,
Robins
D.
(
2000
).
Phenotypic plasticity of early myogenesis and satellite cell numbers in Atlantic salmon spawning in upland and lowland tributaries of a river system
.
J. Exp. Biol
203
,
2539
–.
Johnston
I. A.
,
Strugnell
G.
,
McCraken
M. L.
,
Johnstone
R.
(
1999
).
Muscle growth and development in normal-sex-ratio and all-female diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon
.
J. Exp. Biol
202
,
1991
–.
Johnston
I. A.
,
Vieira
V. L. A.
,
Abercromby
M.
(
1995
).
Temperature and myogenesis in embryos of Atlantic herring Clupea harengus
.
J. Exp. Biol
198
,
1389
–.
Koumans
J. T. M.
,
Akster
H. A.
(
1995
).
Myogenic cells in development and growth of fish
.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol
110
,
3
–.
Koumans
J. T. M.
,
Akster
H. A.
,
Brooms
G. H. R.
,
Lemmens
C. J. J.
,
Osse
J. W. M.
(
1991
).
Numbers of myosatellite cells in white axial muscle of growing fish: Cyprinuscarpio L. (Teleostei)
.
Am. J. Anat
192
,
418
–.
Lagormarisino
V.
,
Conover
D. O.
(
1993
).
Variation in environmental and genotypic sex-determining mechanisms across2564a latitudinal gradient in the fish, Menidia menidia
.
Evolution
47
,
487
–.
Meyer-Rochow
V. B.
,
Ingram
J. R.
(
1993
).
Red—white muscle distribution and fibre growth dynamics: a comparison between lacustrine and riverine populations of the Southern smelt Retropinna retropinna Richardson
.
Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B
252
,
85
–.
Musarò
A.
,
McCullagh
K. J. A.
,
Naya
F. J.
,
Olson
N.
,
Rosenthal
N.
(
1999
).
IGF-1 induces skeletal myocycye hypertrophy through calcineurin in association with GATA-2 and NF-Atc1
.
Nature
400
,
581
–.
O'Steen
S.
(
1998
).
Embryonic temperature influences juvenile choice and growth rate in snapping turtles Chelydra serpentina
.
J. Exp. Biol
201
,
439
–.
Rowlerson
A.
,
Mascarello
F.
,
Radaelli
G.
,
Veggetti
A.
(
1995
).
Differentiation and growth of muscle in the fish Sparus aurata (L.). II. Hyperplastic and hypertrophic growth of lateral muscle from hatching to adult
.
J. Muscle Res. Cell Motil
16
,
223
–.
Semsarian
C.
,
Ming-Jie
W.
,
Yue-Kun
J.
,
Marciniec
T.
,
Yeoh
T.
,
Allen
D. G.
,
Harvey
R. P.
,
Graham
R. M.
(
1999
).
Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is mediated by a Ca2+-dependent calcineurin signalling pathway
.
Nature
400
,
576
–.
Stabell
O. B.
(
1984
).
Homing and olfaction in salmonids: a critical review with special reference to Atlantic salmon
.
Biol. Rev
59
,
333
–.
Stickland
N. C.
,
White
R. N.
,
Mescall
P. E.
,
Crook
A. R.
,
Thorpe
J. E.
(
1988
).
The effect of temperature on myogenesis in embryonic development of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)
.
Anat. Embryol
178
,
253
–.
Stoiber
W.
,
Sänger
A. M.
(
1996
).
An electron microscopic investigation into the possible source of new muscle fibres in teleost fish
.
Anat. Embryol
194
,
569
–.
Tåning
A. V.
(
1952
).
Experimental study of meristic characters in fishes
.
Biol. Rev
27
,
169
–.
This content is only available via PDF.