We examined aerobic performance, organ and muscle mass and enzymatic activity in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). We tested three models of performance limitation (central limits, peripheral limits, symmorphosis) and explored relationships between basal metabolic rate (BMR), aerobic capacity (V (O2max)) and social rank. Males had a lower BMR, a higher V (O2max) and a greater aerobic scope than females. Females possessed larger peritoneal and reproductive organs, while males had larger hearts, lungs and leg muscles. In females, BMR was correlated with spleen mass and V (O2max) was correlated with hematocrit and large intestine mass. Male BMR was correlated with intestinal tract and lung mass, and V (O2max) was correlated with heart and pectoralis mass. Male citrate synthase activity averaged 57 % higher than that of females and was correlated with V (O2max) (this correlation was not significant in females). Female social status was not correlated with any variable, but male dominance was associated with higher aerobic scope, larger heart and lungs, smaller peritoneal organs and greater leg citrate synthase activity. We conclude that aerobic capacity is controlled by system-wide limitations (symmorphosis) in males, while in females it is controlled by central organs. In neither sex is elevated aerobic capacity associated with increased maintenance costs.

Bennett
A. F.
,
Ruben
J. A.
(
1979
).
Endothermy and activity in vertebrates
.
Science
206
,
649
–.
Chappell
M. A.
,
Bech
C.
,
Buttemer
W. A.
(
1999
).
The relationship of central and peripheral organ masses to aerobic performance variation in house sparrows
.
J. Exp. Biol
202
,
2269
–.
Chappell
M. A.
,
Snyder
L. R. G.
(
1984
).
Biochemical andphysiological correlates of deer mouse alpha-chain hemoglobin polymorphisms
.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
81
,
5484
–.
Chappell
M. A.
,
Zuk
M.
,
Johnsen
T. S.
,
Kwan
T. H.
(
1997
).
Mate choice and aerobic capacity in red junglefowl
.
Behaviour
134
,
511
–.
Daan
S.
,
Masman
D.
,
Groenewold
A.
(
1990
).
Avian basal metabolic rates: their association with body composition and energy expenditure in nature
.
Am. J. Physiol
259
,
333
–.
Daan
S.
,
Masman
D.
,
Strijkstra
A.
,
Verhulst
S.
(
1989
).
Intraspecific allometry of basal metabolic rate: relations with body size, temperature, composition and circadian phase in the kestrel, Falco tinnunculus
.
J. Biol. Rhythms
4
,
267
–.
Else
P. L.
,
Hulbert
A. J.
(
1981
).
Comparison of the ‘mammal machine’ and the ‘reptile machine’: energy production
.
Am. J. Physiol
240
,
3
–.
Garland
T.
(
1984
).
Physiological correlates of locomotory performance in a lizard: an allometric approach
.
Am. J. Physiol
247
,
806
–.
Garland
T.
,
Bennett
A. F.
(
1990
).
Quantitative genetics of maximal oxygen consumption in a garter snake
.
Am. J. Physiol
259
,
986
–.
Garland
T.
,
Else
P.
(
1987
).
Seasonal, sexual and individual variation in endurance and activity metabolism in lizards
.
Am. J. Physiol
259
,
986
–.
Hulbert
A. J.
,
Else
P.
(
1981
).
Comparison of the ‘mammal machine’ and the ‘reptile machine’: energy use and thyroid activity
.
Am. J. Physiol
241
,
350
–.
Jayne
B. C.
,
Bennett
A. F.
(
1990
).
Selection on locomotor performance capacity in a natural population of garter snakes
.
Evolution
44
,
1204
–.
Konarzewski
M.
,
Diamond
J.
(
1995
).
Evolution of basal metabolic rate and organ masses in laboratory mice
.
Evolution
49
,
1239
–.
Peterson
C. C.
,
Nagy
K. A.
,
Diamond
J.
(
1990
).
Sustained metabolic scope
.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
87
,
2324
–.
Reichmann
H.
,
Srihari
T.
,
Pette
D.
(
1983
).
Ipsi-and contralateral fibre transformation by cross-reinnervation. A principle of symmetry
.
Pflugers Arch
397
,
202
–.
Rice
W. R.
(
1989
).
Analyzing tables of statistical tests
.
Evolution
43
,
223
–.
Ricklefs
R. E.
,
Konarzewski
M.
,
Daan
S.
(
1996
).
The relationship between basal metabolic rate and daily energy expenditure in birds and mammals
.
Am. Nat
147
,
1047
–.
Starck
J. M.
(
1999
).
Phenotypic flexibility of the avian gizzard: rapid, reversible and repeated changes of organ size in response to changes in dietary fiber content
.
J. Exp. Biol
202
,
3171
–.
Taylor
C. R.
,
Weibel
E. R.
(
1981
).
Design of the mammalian respiratory system. I. Problems and strategy
.
Respir. Physiol
44
,
1
–.
Weibel
E. R.
,
Taylor
C. R.
,
Hoppeler
H.
(
1991
).
The conceptof symmorphosis: a testable hypothesis of structure— function relationship
.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
88
,
10357
–.
Zuk
M.
,
Kim
T.
,
Robinson
S. I.
,
Johnsen
T. S.
(
1998
).
Parasites influence social rank and morphology, but not mate choice, in female red junglefowl, Gallus gallus
.
Anim. Behav
56
,
493
–.
Zuk
M.
,
Popma
S. L.
,
Johnsen
T. S.
(
1995
).
Male courtship displays, ornaments and female mate choice in captive red junglefowl
.
Behaviour
132
,
11
–.
Zuk
M.
,
Thornhill
R.
,
Ligon
J. D.
(
1990
).
Parasites and mate choice in red junglefowl
.
Am. Zool
30
,
232
–.
This content is only available via PDF.