The kinematics of intraoral transport and swallowing in lizards of the species Uromastix acanthinurus (Chamaeleonidae, Leiolepidinae) were investigated using cineradiography (50 frames s-1). Additional recordings were also made using high-speed (500 frames s-1) and conventional video systems (25 frames s-1). Small metal markers were inserted into different parts of the upper and lower jaw and the tongue. Cineradiographic images were digitised, and displacements of the body, head, upper and lower jaw and the tongue were quantified. Twenty additional variables depicting displacements and the timing of events were calculated. Multivariate analyses of variance indicated significant differences between feeding stages. Remarkably, only very few food-type-dependent differences were observed during intraoral transport, and no such differences could be demonstrated during swallowing. Using previously published data for the closely related insectivorous lizard Plocederma stellio, the effect of dietary specialisation in U. acanthinurus on the kinematic variables while eating locusts was examined. Species differed in a number of gape- and tongue-related variables. These differences may be related to differences in tongue structure between the species. Clearly, U. acanthinurus possesses a specialised gut and dental structure that allows them efficiently to cut pieces from whole leaves. However, a decrease in modulatory capacity seems to be a consequence of dietary specialisation in Uromastix acanthinurus.

REFERENCES

Bels
V.
,
Baltus
I.
(
1988
).
The influence of food items on the feeding cycle in Anolis equestris (Reptilia: Iguanidae)
.
Copeia
2
,
479
–.
Bock
W. J.
,
Shear
C. R.
(
1972
).
A staining method for gross dissection
.
Anat. Anz
130
,
222
–.
Bouskila
A.
(
1987
).
Feeding in the herbivorous lizard Uromastix aegyptius near Hazeva
.
Israel J. Zool
33
,
122
–.
Delheusy
V.
,
Bels
V. L.
(
1992
).
Kinematics of feeding behaviour in Oplurus cuvieri (Reptilia: Iguanidae)
.
J. Exp. Biol
170
,
155
–.
Demment
M. W.
,
Van Soest
P. J.
(
1985
).
A nutritional explanation for body-size patterns of ruminant and non-ruminant herbivores
.
Am. Nat
125
,
641
–.
De Vree
F.
,
Gans
C.
(
1987
).
Kinetic movements in the skull of adult Trachydosaurus rugosus
.
Anat. Histol. Embryol
16
,
206
–.
Frazzetta
T. H.
(
1962
).
A functional consideration of cranial kinesis in lizards
.
J. Morph
111
,
287
–.
Herrel
A.
,
Cleuren
J.
,
De Vree
F.
(
1995
).
Prey capture in the lizard Agama stellio
.
J. Morph
224
,
313
–.
Herrel
A.
,
Cleuren
J.
,
De Vree
F.
(
1996
).
Kinematics of feeding in the lizard Agama stellio
.
J. Exp. Biol
199
,
1727
–.
Herrel
A.
,
Timmermans
J.-P.
,
De Vree
F.
(
1998
).
Tongue-flicking in agamid lizards: morphology, kinematics and muscle activity patterns
.
Anat. Rec
252
,
102
–.
Iverson
J. B.
(
1980
).
Colic modifications in iguanine lizards
.
J. Morph
163
,
79
–.
Joger
U.
(
1991
).
A molecular phylogeny of agamid lizards
.
Copeia
1991
,
612
–.
Kraklau
D. M.
(
1991
).
Kinematics of prey capture and chewing in the lizard Agama agama
.
J. Morph
210
,
195
–.
Lauder
G. V.
(
1983
).
Functional and morphological bases of trophic specialisation in fishes
.
Science
219
,
1235
–.
Liem
K. F.
(
1980
).
Adaptive significance of intra-and interspecific differences in the feeding repertoires of cichlid fishes
.
Am. Zool
20
,
295
–.
Maloiy
G. M. O.
,
Clemens
E. T.
(
1990
).
Aspects of digestion and in vitro fermentation in the caecum of some East-African herbivores
.
J. Zool
224
,
293
–.
Ostrom
J. H.
(
1963
).
Further comments on herbivorous lizards
.
Evolution
17
,
368
–.
Pough
F. H.
(
1973
).
Lizard energetics and diet
.
Ecology
54
,
838
–.
Reilly
S. M.
,
Lauder
G. V.
(
1990
).
The evolution of tetrapod prey transport behavior: kinematic homologies in feeding function
.
Evolution
44
,
1542
–.
Rice
W. R.
(
1989
).
Analyzing tables of statistical tests
.
Evolution
43
,
223
–.
Smith
K. K.
(
1980
).
Mechanical significance of streptostyly in lizards
.
Nature
283
,
778
–.
Smith
K. K.
(
1982
).
An electromyographic study of the jaw adducting muscles in Varanus exanthematicus (Varanidae)
.
J. Morph
173
,
137
–.
Sokol
O. M.
(
1967
).
Herbivory in lizards
.
Evolution
21
,
192
–.
Szarski
H.
(
1962
).
Some remarks on herbivorous lizards
.
Evolution
16
,
529
–.
Throckmorton
G. S.
(
1976
).
Oral food processing in two herbivorous lizards, Iguana iguana (Iguanidae) and Uromastix aegyptius (Agamidae)
.
J. Morph
148
,
363
–.
Throckmorton
G. S.
(
1978
).
The action of the pterygoideus muscle during feeding in the lizard Uromastix aegyptius (Agamidae)
.
Anat. Rec
190
,
217
–.
Throckmorton
G. S.
(
1979
).
The effect of wear on the cheek teeth and associated dental tissues of the lizard Uromastix aegyptius (Agamidae)
.
J. Morph
160
,
195
–.
Throckmorton
G. S.
(
1980
).
The chewing cycle in the herbivorous lizard Uromastix aegyptius (Agamidae)
.
Arch. Oral Biol
25
,
225
–.
Throckmorton
G. S.
,
Clarcke
L. K.
(
1981
).
Intracranial joint movement in the agamid lizard Amphibolurus barbatus
.
J. Exp. Zool
216
,
25
–.
Wainwright
P. C.
,
Sanford
C. P.
,
Reilly
S. M.
,
Lauder
G. V.
(
1989
).
Evolution of motor patterns: aquatic feeding in salamanders and ray-finned fishes
.
Brain Behav. Evol
34
,
329
–.
This content is only available via PDF.