A vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-like peptide is released by axonal stimulation in the giant axon-Schwann cell preparation from the tropical squid Sepioteuthis sepioidea. It is also released by direct application of l-glutamate, the giant axon-Schwann cell signalling molecule in this preparation. The release of the peptide parallels the release of acetylcholine from the Schwann cells themselves in this preparation in a number of different ways. The release of both acetylcholine and the VIP-like peptide have the same threshold (between 2×10(−10) and 5×10(−10)mol l-1) for l-glutamate application and the same recovery time after inhibition of release by exposure of the preparation to a prolonged pulse of l-glutamate. A prolonged l-glutamate pulse of 10(−8)mol l-1 releases both substances for as long as the pulse is applied to the preparation, whereas a prolonged pulse of 10(−9)mol l-1 l-glutamate releases acetylcholine in the same way but releases the VIP-like peptide only transiently. The VIP-like peptide is likely to be co-released with acetylcholine from the Schwann cells.

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