Renin secretion at the level of renal juxtaglomerular cells appears to be controlled mainly by classic second messengers such as Ca2+, cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, which in turn exert their effects through oppositely acting protein kinases and probably also by affecting the activity of ion channels in the plasma membrane. Thus, protein kinase A stimulates renin secretion, whilst protein kinase C and protein kinase G II inhibit renin secretion. Moreover, Cl- channels could be involved in the mediation of the inhibitory action of Ca2+ on renin secretion. This review summarizes our present knowledge about the possible actions of these kinases in renal juxtaglomerular cells and considers pathways in the organ control of renin secretion.

Barajas
L.
(
1979
).
Anatomy of the juxtaglomerular apparatus
.
Am. J. Physiol
236
,
240
–.
Beavo
J. A.
(
1995
).
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: functional implications of multiple isoforms
.
Physiol. Rev
75
,
725
–.
Berk
B. C.
,
Aronow
M. S.
,
Brock
T. A.
,
Cragoe
E.
,
Gimbrone
M. A.
,
Alexander
R. W.
(
1987
).
Angiotensin II-stimulated Na+/H+exchange in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Evidence for protein kinase C-dependent and-independent pathways
.
J. Biol. Chem
262
,
5057
–.
Buhrle
C. P.
,
Nobiling
R.
,
Taugner
R.
(
1985
).
Intracellular recordings from renin-positive cells of the afferent glomerular arteriole
.
Am. J. Physiol
249
,
272
–.
Butt
E.
,
Nolte
C.
,
Schulz
S.
,
Beltman
J.
,
Beavo
J. A.
,
Jastorff
B.
,
Walter
U.
(
1992
).
Analysis of the functional role of cGMP-dependent protein kinase in intact human platelets using a specific activator 8-para-chlorophenylthio-cGMP
.
Biochem. Pharmac
12
,
2591
–.
Chiu
T.
,
Reid
I. A.
(
1996
).
Role of cyclic GMP-inhibitable phosphodiesterase and nitric oxide in the beta adrenoceptor control of renin secretion
.
J. Pharmac. Exp. Ther
278
,
793
–.
Churchill
P. C.
,
Churchill
M. C.
(
1983
).
Effects of trifluoperazine on renin secretion of rat kidney slices
.
J. Pharmac. Exp. Ther
224
,
68
–.
Churchill
P. C.
,
Churchill
M. C.
(
1984
).
12- O -tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) inhibits renin secretion of rat renal cortical slices
.
J. Hypertens
2
,
25
–.
Della Bruna
R.
,
Pinet
F.
,
Corvol
P.
,
Kurtz
A.
(
1992
).
Calmodulin antagonists stimulate renin secretion and inhibit renin synthesis in vitro
.
Am. J. Physiol
262
,
397
–.
Gambaryan
S.
,
Hausler
C.
,
Markert
T.
,
Pohler
D.
,
Jarchau
T.
,
Walter
U.
,
Haase
W.
,
Kurtz
A.
,
Lohmann
S. M.
(
1996
).
Expression of type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase in rat kidney is regulated by dehydration and correlated with renin gene expression
.
J. Clin. Invest
98
,
662
–.
Greenberg
S. G.
,
He
X. R.
,
Schnermann
J. B.
,
Briggs
J. P.
(
1995
).
Effect of nitric oxide on renin secretion. I. Studies in isolated juxtaglomerular granular cells
.
Am. J. Physiol
268
,
948
–.
Hackenthal
E.
,
Paul
M.
,
Ganten
D.
,
Taugner
R.
(
1990
).
Morphology, physiology and molecular biology of renin secretion
.
Physiol. Rev
70
,
1067
–.
Hano
T.
,
Shiotani
M.
,
Baba
A.
,
Ura
M.
,
Nakamura
Y.
,
Tomobuchi
Y.
,
Nishio
I.
,
Masuyama
Y.
(
1990
).
Contribution of calmodulin and protein kinase C to renin release in spontaneously hypertensive rats
.
Am. J. Hypertens
3
,
206
–.
Henrich
W. L.
,
McAllister
E. A.
,
Smith
P. B.
,
Campbell
W. B.
(
1988
).
Guanosine 3,5 -cyclic monophosphate as a mediator of inhibition of renin release
.
Am. J. Physiol
255
,
474
–.
Jensen
B. L.
,
Krämer
B. K.
,
Kurtz
A.
(
1997
).
Adrenomedullin stimulates renin release and renin mRNA in mouse juxtaglomerular granular cells
.
Hypertension
29
,
1148
–.
Jensen
B. L.
,
Skott
O.
(
1993
).
Osmotically sensitive renin release from permeabilized juxtaglomerular cells
.
Am. J. Physiol
265
,
87
–.
Jensen
B. L.
,
Skott
O.
(
1994
).
Renin release from permeabilized juxtaglomerular cells is stimulated by chloride but not by low calcium
.
Am. J. Physiol
266
,
604
–.
Jensen
B. L.
,
Skott
O.
(
1996
).
Blockade of chloride channels by DIDS stimulates renin release and inhibits contraction of afferent arterioles
.
Am. J. Physiol
270
,
718
–.
King
J. A.
,
Fray
J. C.
(
1994
).
Hydrogen and potassium regulation of (pro)renin processing and secretion
.
Am. J. Physiol
267
,
1
–.
Kurtz
A.
(
1989
).
Cellular control of renin secretion
.
Rev. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmac
113
,
2
–.
Kurtz
A.
,
Della Bruna
R.
,
Scholz
H.
,
Baier
W.
(
1991
).
Amiloride enhances the secretion but not the synthesis of renin in renal juxtaglomerular cells
.
Pflugers Arch
419
,
32
–.
Kurtz
A.
,
Götz
K. H.
,
Hamann
M.
,
Kieninger
M.
,
Wagner
C.
(
1998
).
Stimulation of renin secretion by NO donors is related to the cyclic AMP pathway
.
Am. J. Physiol
274
,
709
–.
Kurtz
A.
,
Götz
K. H.
,
Hamann
M.
,
Wagner
C.
(
1998
).
Stimulation of renin secretion by nitric oxide is mediated by phosphodiesterase 3
.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
95
,
4743
–.
Kurtz
A.
,
Penner
R.
(
1989
).
Angiotensin II induces oscillations of intracellular calcium and blocks anomalous inward rectifying potassium current in mouse renal juxtaglomerular cells
.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
86
,
3423
–.
Kurtz
A.
,
Pfeilschifter
J.
,
Hutter
A.
,
Buhrle
C.
,
Nobiling
R.
,
Taugner
R.
,
Hackenthal
R.
,
Bauer
C.
(
1986
).
Role of protein kinase C in the inhibition of renin release caused by vasoconstrictors
.
Am. J. Physiol
250
,
563
–.
Loutzenhiser
R.
,
Chilton
L.
,
Trottier
G.
(
1997
).
Membrane potential measurements in renal afferent arterioles: actions of angiotensin II
.
Am. J. Physiol
273
,
307
–.
Munter
K.
,
Hackenthal
E.
(
1989
).
The effects of endothelin on renovascular resistance and renin release
.
J. Hypertens
7
,
276
–.
Naftilan
A. J.
,
Oparil
S.
(
1982
).
The role of calcium in the control of renin release
.
Hypertension
4
,
670
–.
Noble
A. R.
,
Abu-Kishk Dálioa
M. A.
,
Williams
B. C.
,
Lush
D. J.
(
1994
).
Cyclic GMP-linked pathway for renin secretion
.
Kidney Int
64
,
1588
–.
Ogawa
K.
,
Yamasato
M.
,
Taniguchi
K.
(
1995
).
Exocytosis of secretory granules in the juxtaglomerular granular cells of kidneys
.
Anat. Rec
243
,
336
–.
Park
C. S.
,
Chang
S. H.
,
Lee
H. S.
,
Kim
S. H.
,
Chang
J. W.
,
Hong
C. D.
(
1996
).
Inhibition of renin secretion by Ca2+through activation of myosin light chain kinase
.
Am. J. Physiol
271
,
242
–.
Park
C. S.
,
Honeyman
T. W.
,
Chung
E. S.
,
Lee
J. S.
,
Sigmon
D. H.
,
Fray
J. C.
(
1986
).
Involvement of calmodulin in mediating inhibitory action of intracellular Ca2+on renin secretion
.
Am. J. Physiol
251
,
1055
–.
Park
C. S.
,
Hong
C. D.
,
Honeyman
T. W.
(
1992
).
Calcium-dependent inhibitory step in the control of renin secretion
.
Am. J. Physiol
262
,
793
–.
Park
C. S.
,
Lee
H. S.
,
Chang
S. H.
,
Honeyman
T. W.
,
Hong
C. D.
(
1996
).
Inhibitory effect of Ca2+on renin secretion elicited by chemiosmotic stimuli through actomyosin mediation
.
Am. J. Physiol
271
,
248
–.
Reid
I. A.
,
Chiu
Y. J.
(
1995
).
Nitric oxide and the control of renin secretion
.
Fund. Clin. Pharmac
9
,
309
–.
Ritthaler
T.
,
Della Bruna
R.
,
Krämer
B. K.
,
Kurtz
A.
(
1996
).
Endothelins inhibit cyclic-AMP induced renin gene expression in cultured mouse juxtaglomerular cells
.
Kidney Int
50
,
108
–.
Ritthaler
T.
,
Scholz
H.
,
Ackermann
M.
,
Riegger
G. A. J.
,
Kurtz
A.
,
Krämer
B. K.
(
1995
).
Effects of endothelins on renin secretion from isolated mouse renal juxtaglomerular cells
.
Am. J. Physiol
268
,
39
–.
Romero
J. C.
,
Lahera
V.
,
Salom
M. G.
,
Biondi
M. L.
(
1992
).
Role of the endothelium-dependent relaxing factor nitric oxide on renal function
.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol
2
,
1371
–.
Schmidt
H. H. H. W.
,
Lohmann
S. M.
,
Walter
U.
(
1993
).
The nitric oxide and cGMP signal transduction system: regulation and mechanisms of action
.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
1178
,
153
–.
Schnermann
J.
(
1998
).
Juxtaglomerular cell complex in the regulation of renal salt excretion
.
Am. J. Physiol
274
,
263
–.
Scholz
H.
,
Hamann
M.
,
Götz
K. H.
,
Kurtz
A.
(
1994
).
Role of calcium ions in the pressure control of renin secretion from the kidneys
.
Pflugers Arch
428
,
173
–.
Schricker
K.
,
Della Bruna
R.
,
Kurtz
A.
(
1993
).
Extracellular calcium exerts a dual effect on renin secretion from isolated mouse juxtaglomerular cells
.
Pflugers Arch
423
,
14
–.
Schricker
K.
,
Kurtz
A.
(
1993
).
Liberators of NO exert a dual effect on renin secretion from isolated mouse renal juxtaglomerular cells
.
Am. J. Physiol
265
,
180
–.
Schwertschlag
U.
,
Hackenthal
E.
(
1983
).
Trifluoperazine antagonizes inhibition of renin release by angiotensin II
.
Clin. Exp. Pharmac. Physiol
10
,
605
–.
Skott
O.
(
1986
).
Episodic release of renin from single isolated superfused rat afferent arterioles
.
Pflugers Arch
407
,
41
–.
Skott
O.
(
1988
).
Do osmotic forces play a role in renin secretion?
.
Am. J. Physiol
255
,
1
–.
Skott
O.
,
Jensen
B. L.
(
1992
).
Involvement of chloride in renin secretion from isolated rat glomeruli
.
Am. J. Physiol
262
,
403
–.
Skott
O.
,
Taugner
R.
(
1987
).
Effects of extracellular osmolality on renin release and on the ultrastructure of the juxtaglomerular epithelioid cell granules
.
Cell Tissue Res
249
,
325
–.
Taugner
R.
,
Buhrle
C. P.
,
Hackenthal
E.
,
Mannek
E.
,
Nobiling
R.
(
1984
).
Morphology of the juxtaglomerular apparatus
.
Contr. Nephrol
43
,
76
–.
Taugner
R.
,
Buhrle
C. P.
,
Nobiling
R.
(
1984
).
Ultrastructural changes associated with renin secretion from the juxtaglomerular apparatus of mice
.
Cell Tissue Res
237
,
459
–.
Taugner
R.
,
Nobiling
R.
,
Metz
R.
,
Taugner
F.
,
Buhrle
C.
,
Hackenthal
E.
(
1988
).
Hypothetical interpretation of the calcium paradox in renin secretion
.
Cell Tissue Res
252
,
687
–.
Vandongen
R.
,
Peart
W. S.
(
1974
).
Calcium dependence of the inhibitory effect of angiotensin on renin secretion in the isolated perfused kidney of the rat
.
Br. J. Pharmac
50
,
125
–.
Wagner
C.
,
Pfeifer
A.
,
Ruth
P.
,
Hofmann
F.
,
Kurtz
A.
(
1998
).
Role of cGMP-kinase II in the control of renin secretion and renin expression
.
J. Clin. Invest
102
,
1576
–.
This content is only available via PDF.