Frequency-response curves of the tympanum and lateral body wall (lung area) were measured by laser Doppler vibrometry in three treefrog (Smilisca baudini, Hyla cinerea, Osteopilus septentrionalis) and four dendrobatid frog (Dendrobates tinctorius, D. histrionicus, Epipedobates tricolor, E. azureiventris) species. The high-frequency cut-off of the body wall response was always lower than that of the tympanum. The best response frequencies of the lateral body wall were lower than those of the tympanum in some species (S. baudini, O. septentrionalis, D. tinctorius), while in the others they were rather similar. Best tympanic frequencies and best body wall response frequencies tended to differ more with increasing body size. Stimulation of the tympanum by sound transfer through 3.14 mm2 areas of the lateral body wall showed that the lung-eardrum pathway can be in two states, depending on breathing activity within the lungs: 44% (in Smilisca), 39% (in Hyla) and 31% (in Osteopilus) of the eardrum vibrations were 2.5-8 times (8-18 dB) larger when the frogs were breathing with the lungs compared with non-breathing conditions. The vibration amplitudes of the tympanum and lateral body wall of the treefrogs followed the same dependence on sound intensity, only absolute amplitudes differed between species. Our results suggest that the lung-eardrum pathway attenuates high-frequency components of species-specific calls and enhances low-frequency components. In addition, an amplitude modulation is imposed on the low frequencies during the rhythm of breathing.

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