Wind tunnel and water tank experiments were carried out on a penguin model in order to optimise the shape and attachment of a back-mounted datalogger. Device-induced turbulence was minimised when the unit was placed in the most caudal position. Drag was further reduced by shaping the device to match the body contour. The hydrodynamic resistance of the package could be reduced by 65 % compared with an earlier unit. These results are discussed together with results from new studies on kinematics and energetics of underwater swimming of live instrumented penguins.

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