1. Vorticella extracted with Triton X-100 contracted (i.e. the cell body shrank and the stalk coiled) when the external Ca2+ concentration was raised. The degree of contraction increased with increasing Ca2+ concentration. 2. The threshold Ca2+ concentration for shrinkage of the cell body was identical with that for coiling of the stalk in Vorticella extracted with Triton X-100. 3. Living Vorticella showed a graded shrinkage of the cell body when Ca2+ buffer was injected into the cell body, while the stalk showed coiling of an all-or-nothing type. The degree of shrinkage of the cell body increased with increasing free Ca2+ concentration of the buffer. 4. Living Vorticella showed a sustained contraction in response to external application or intracellular injection of caffeine. The effect of caffeine was inhibited by intracellular injection of procaine or Ruthenium Red. 5. Vorticella injected with Ruthenium Red showed graded shrinkage of the cell body as well as graded coiling of the stalk when Ca2+ buffer was injected into the cell body. 6. Caffeine, procaine and Ruthenium Red had no measurable effect on Ca2+-activated contraction in Vorticella extracted with Triton X-100. 7. It is assumed that regenerative liberation of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum and/or membranous tubules in the contractile system (Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release) is responsible for evoking contraction of an all-or-nothing type following stimulation in living Vorticella.

This content is only available via PDF.