A series of experiments on three-dimensional ‘near fling’ was carried out. Two pairs of plates, rectangular and triangular, were selected, and the distance between the rotation axes of the two plates of each pair was varied. The motion of the plates as well as the forces and the moment were measured, and the interference between the two plates of a pair was studied. In addition, a method of numerical calculation was developed to aid in the understanding of the experimental results. The interference between the two plates of a pair, which acted to increase both the added mass of each plate and the hydrodynamic force due to dynamic pressure, was noted only when the opening angle between the plates was small. The hydrodynamic forces were strongly influenced by separated vortices that occurred during the rotation. A method of numerical calculation, which took into account the effect both of interference between the plates and of separated vortices, was developed to give adequate accuracy in analyzing beating wings in ‘near fling’.

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