Synaptic vesicles have important roles in the neural transmission at nerve terminals: the storage and the controlled exocytosis of neurotransmitters. At least two different factors are responsible for the concentration process: the vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase), establishing an electrochemical gradient of protons, and specific transport systems for transmitters. We will discuss our recent progress on the energy-transducing systems in synaptic vesicles: (1) structural aspects of V-ATPase; (2) energy coupling of transport of transmitters; (3) reconstitution of transporters; (4) effects of neurotoxins and neuron blocking agents; (5) function of synaptic-vesicle-like microvesicles from endocrine tissues.

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