This paper reviews the maximum forces exerted by animals in a wide range of activities including running, jumping, swimming and biting. Most of the data refer to vertebrates and arthropods, ranging in size from 0.5-mg fleas to 3-tonne elephants. Maximum forces exerted on the environment give values of (force/body weight) which lie, in most cases, between 0.5 body mass-1/3 (kg) and 20 body mass-1/3. Maximum forces exerted by major muscle groups give values of (force/body weight) in most cases between 10 body mass-1/3 and 50 body mass-1/3.
Skip Nav Destination
JOURNAL ARTICLE| 01 March 1985
The maximum forces exerted by animals
R. M. Alexander
Online Issn: 1477-9145
Print Issn: 0022-0949
© 1985 by Company of Biologists
J Exp Biol (1985) 115 (1): 231–238.
- Views Icon Views
- Share Icon Share
- Search Site
R. M. Alexander; The maximum forces exerted by animals. J Exp Biol 1 March 1985; 115 (1): 231–238. doi: https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.115.1.231
Download citation file: