Detailed measurements were made of the movements and waveforms of bull sperm flagella over a temperature range of 5 to 37 degrees C and over a range of external viscosities of 1–3600 X 10(−3) Pas-1. The data obtained were used for an evaluation of the internal active moments in the flagella, using exact, large amplitude, algebra. The results of the calculations show that the axoneme in bull sperm flagella can produce the forces necessary to power the flagellar motion over the entire range of conditions. The calculations further suggest that no other structure in the bull sperm flagella has a force-producing function.

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