Micropuncture techniques have been used to investigate kidney function in lampreys adapted to hyperosmotic media. Plasma electrolyte concentrations were maintained well below corresponding concentrations in the external environment. Urine composition was variable, but generally showed high concentrations of magnesium, sulphate and chloride ions. Lampreys in 50% sea water produced urine which was hypo or iso-osmotic to plasma, whereas those in 100% sea water produced hyperosmotic urine. Urine flow rate in 50% sea water was one tenth of that in fresh water, due to a reduction in filtration rate and an increase in water reabsorption by the kidney. As in fresh water, little if any filtered water was reabsorbed by the proximal segment. Almost 90% of filtered water was reabsorbed by the kidney of 100% sea water lampreys and most of this must have occurred in the distal and collecting segments.

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