The carbon dioxide content of the intracellular compartment of fish muscle was determined by direct measurements of CO2 and pH in tissue homogenates of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The results agree with the concept that compartmental distribution of CO2 is pH-dependent and that muscle membranes are not very permeable to bicarbonate. The interaction between CO2 and ammonia excreted from fish muscle was also investigated by altering plasma CO2 content using bicarbonate infusion following exhaustive exercise. Removal of the acid boundary layer in white muscle by bicarbonate infusion resulted in retention of ammonia in the muscle, indicating that ammonia excretion across the muscle membrane might be enhanced by the hydration of excreted CO2 in the extracellular fluid. Passive diffusion of NH3, rather than NH4+ transfer, is probably the dominant pathway of ammonia excretion through fish muscle membranes.

The mechanisms of CO2 transport in the blood and its excretion across the gills have been extensively studied in various fish (see reviews by Perry, 1986; Randall, 1990), but little is known about CO2 distribution or the factors determining that distribution in body tissues of fish. Because of a lack of adequate methods for direct measurement, tissue CO2 content is calculated by assuming that tissue is equal to venous , based on the theory of non-ionic diffusion of weak acids (Milne et al. 1958). The validity of such calculations, however, has not been tested, especially in cases where large changes of CO2 content occur in a short period, such as following exhaustive exercise. The first objective of the present study was therefore to evaluate intracellular CO2 content in the white muscle of rainbow trout at rest and following exhaustive exercise, based on direct total CO2 and pH measurements in tissue homogenates.

The distribution and excretion of ammonia have been investigated in some fish (see review by Randall, 1990). The excretion of ammonia and carbon dioxide across fish gills is linked (Wright et al. 1989). In brief, CO2 excretion across the gills acidifies the water layer next to the gill surface as CO2 is hydrated at a catalysed rate to form HCO3 and H+. NH3 excretion however, raises boundary layer pH with the formation of NH4+. The latter effect is usually masked by the much larger CO2 excretion. The formation of an acidic boundary layer at the gill as a result of CO2 excretion will, therefore, enhance ammonia excretion by trapping NH3 as NH4+. Carbonic anhydrase has been observed on the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle in a variety of vertebrates (Gros and Dodgson, 1988) including fish (Sanyal et al. 1982). The presence of this enzyme on the sarcolemma raises the possibility that similar interactions between carbon dioxide and ammonia may also occur at the tissue level. The role of carbonic anhydrase on the sarcolemma of muscle tissue is probably to facilitate CO2 diffusion. However, the functional influence of a catalysed CO2 hydration reaction on ammonia excretion has not been considered. The second objective of the present study was, therefore, to investigate the possible interactions between carbon dioxide and ammonia transfer from white muscle. This was approached by altering plasma CO2 content using bicarbonate infusion following exhaustive exercise in rainbow trout, and then examining CO2 and ammonia contents in extra-and intracellular compartments.

Wright et al. (1988) concluded that fish muscle membranes, unlike those of mammals, were permeable to NH4+. This conclusion has been challenged on the grounds that the metabolic cost that must result from the subsequent shortcircuiting of proton transport is too high (Heisler, 1990). If the muscle membrane is very permeable to ammonium ions, then the removal of the acid boundary layer by bicarbonate infusion should enhance ammonia excretion from the muscle. If the muscle membrane is permeable to ammonia rather than to ammonium ions then the removal of the acid boundary layer should retard ammonia excretion from the muscle.

Animals and preparation

Rainbow trout [Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)], weighing 180–250 g, were obtained from a local hatchery, and held outdoors at the University of British Columbia, Canada, in dechlorinated Vancouver tap water (11–13°C) for at least 2 weeks before experimentation. The animals were fed with commercial trout pellets, but feeding was suspended 4 days prior to surgery. Under MS-222 anaesthesia (1:10000 in NaHCO3-buffered fresh water), fish were fitted with dorsal aortic catheters. Following surgery, fish were allowed to recover for at least 48 h in the darkened Plexiglas box of a 3–1 water recirculating system at constant temperature (12°C).

Experimental protocol

Series 1. CO2 distribution at rest and following exercise

For measurements at rest, blood samples (800 μl) were taken from the dorsal aorta and immediately analyzed for plasma pH (pHa), plasma total CO2, plasma total ammonia (Taamm) and whole-blood lactate concentration ([Lactate]a). The animals then received a bolus injection through the dorsal aortic cannula of 1 mg per 300 g body mass of d-tubocurarine chloride (a neuromuscular junction blocker, Sigma). When the animal was unable to move (approximately 10s after injection), it was quickly removed from the chamber, and a sample of white muscle was immediately excised from beside the spine starting at the middle of the dorsal fin and cutting 3–4 cm caudally. Samples were immediately freezeclamped and stored in liquid nitrogen prior to analysis. The time between injection and freezing was 20–30s. The animals were then killed by anaesthetic overdose.

For measurements following exhaustive exercise, animals were chased to exhaustion in a 500-1 circular tank (approximately 6min). Immediately after exercise, blood and white muscle samples were taken as described above.

Series 2. Effects of bicarbonate infusion following exercise

Animals were exercised to exhaustion as described above. Each fish was then held in the darkened chamber of the recirculating system. The animal was immediately infused with 5 ml kg−1 body mass of saline (control group) or 3 mol l−1 NaHCO3 in saline (experimental group), using a peristaltic pump to defiver the solution into the dorsal aorta over a period of approximately 10 min. At 15 min or 30min post-exercise (about 5 min or 20 min after infusion), samples of blood and white muscles were taken as described above. For measurement of ammonia excretion in the external medium over the experimental period (0–15 min or 0–30min post-exercise), water samples from the recirculating system were taken at 0 and 15 or 30 min following exercise.

Analytical procedures and calculations

Plasma pH (pHa) was determined with a microcapillary pH electrode (Radiometer G279/G2) coupled to a PHM84pH meter. Plasma total CO2 was measured using a gas chromatography method (Boutilier et al. 1985) on samples obtained anaerobically. Plasma CO2 tension and bicarbonate concentration ([HCO3]a) were calculated using a rearrangement of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation with values of plasma pK’ and CO2 solubility coefficients for trout blood at 12°C (Boutilier et al. 1984). Plasma total ammonia (Taamm) was assayed based on the L-glutamic dehydrogenase/NAD method (Sigma reagents). Plasma partial pressure of ammonia arid ammonium ion concentration ([NH4+]a) were calculated from the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, using pK and αNH3 values given by Cameron and Heisler (1983). Whole-blood lactate levels ([Lactate]a) were analyzed using the L-lactate dehydrogenase/NAD method (Sigma, 1982). Water ammonia concentration was measured by a modification of the salicylate-hypochlorite reaction (McDonald and Wood, 1981). The net fluxes of ammonia (in μmol h−1 kg−1) were calculated from changes in their respective concentrations in the water of the recirculating system.

For intracellular measurements of white muscle, samples were ground to a fine powder under liquid nitrogen using a precooled mortar and pestle. The powder was always kept wet with liquid nitrogen (to avoid CO2 loss) and was immediately subjected to the following procedures. Muscle intracellular pH (pHi) and were determined by direct measurement of tissue homogenates using fluoride and nitrilotri acetic acid as metabolic inhibitors, as described recently by Portner et al. (1990). In brief, about 150 mg of tissue powder (wet with liquid nitrogen) was transferred to a pre weighed 0.5 ml Eppendorf tube containing 0.2 ml of ice-cold medium (150 mmol l−1 potassium fluoride, 6 mmol l−1 nitrilotriacetic acid). The tube (containing the mixture of tissue powder and medium) was quickly weighed, filled with more medium until almost full (to avoid air contamination), briefly stirred with a needle, capped and reweighed. The mixture was then stirred with a vortex mixer for 3–4 s, and centrifuged for 3–5 s at 12 000 revs min−1. Samples of the supernatant were immediately taken for measurements of pH and as described above. The measured pH of the supernatant was taken as the pH of the tissue homogenate since the effect of dilution by the medium on the pH value is negligible in this case. The values of white muscle intracellular pH were calculated from the pH of the supernatant, taking the estimated influence of extracelluar compartments into consideration (see Portner et al. 1990, for details of the calculation). Values of muscle on the basis of intracellular fluid (mmol l−1ICF) were calculated as:
formula
where whole-tissue =
formula
MV is the medium volume (1) used in the tissue and medium mixture. WTFV is the whole-tissue fluid volume (1g−1 tissue) taken from Milligan and Wood (1986). TM is the tissue mass (g) used in the homogenate preparation. Q is the fraction (%) of extracellular fluid volume in whole-tissue fluid volume, taken from Milligan and Wood (1986). Since only arterial plasma values were measured in the present study, the extracellular values in equation 1 were assumed to be the same as the venous levels, which were estimated from arterial values by assuming that venous-arterial differences in and pHa were the same as those determined by Milligan and Wood (1986), who employed the same experimental protocol as that used in this study. This adjustment was not performed when calculating at rest, since Milligan and Wood (1986) found no significant venous-arterial differences in pH or in resting trout. Muscle and [HCO3]i were then calculated using a rearrangement of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, based on the value of muscle intracellular pK and the CO2 solubility coefficient calculated using the equations given by Heisler (1984). Values of and [NH4+]i were similarly calculated using appropriate constants from Cameron and Heisler (1983).

For the measurements of muscle intracellular ammonia and lactate concentrations, about 500 mg of the tissue powder (wet with liquid nitrogen) was transferred to a preweighed vial containing 1ml of ice-cold 0.6 mol l−1 perchloric acid (PCA) and then reweighed. A further 2 ml of PCA was added and the mixture was immediately homogenized twice on ice for 15 s using an Ultra-Turrax homogenizer. The homogenate was then centrifuged for 10 min at 13 000 revs min−1 and 4°C. A known volume of supernatant was immediately neutralized (pH7.0) with medium containing 1.5 mol l−1K2CO3 and 0.5 mol l−1 triethamol-amine, and stored in liquid nitrogen prior to analysis. The concentrations of ammonia and lactate in the supernatant were analyzed in the same way as described above. The values of muscle Tiamm and [Lactate]i (mmoll−1ICF) were calculated in the same way as that for (see equations 1 and 2).

If carbon dioxide is distributed between muscle intra-and extracellular compartments according to the pH gradient, then intra-and extracellular [CO2] should be equal. To determine whether this was the case, muscle and pHi were predicted from the following formula:
formula
formula
Similarly, assuming that intra-and extracellular [NH3] were equal, the following predictions can be made:
formula
formula
The equilibrium potentials for HCO3 and NH4+ across the muscle cell membranes were calculated from the Nemst equation:
formula
formula
where R, T, Z and F have their usual meanings.

Statistical analysis

Mean values±s.E. are reported throughout. Differences between groups were analyzed statistically using unpaired Student’s t-test. P<0.05 was taken as the fiducial limit of significance.

The present studies are the first direct measurement of carbon dioxide content in the intracellular compartment of fish muscle (Fig. 1; Table 1). In resting animals is similar to and , whereas after exercise is about 0.2 kPa greater than but is similar to the value calculated for venous blood (Fig. 1A; Table 2). The correlation between and or is demonstrated in Fig. 2. however, is much higher in plasma than in muscle during both rest and exercise (Fig. IB). This reflects the fact that carbon dioxide is distributed according to pH between muscle and blood under all conditions tested (Table 1). Calculated values of muscle pH and total carbon dioxide levels, based on the assumption that carbon dioxide was distributed according to pH, were similar to measured values. Membrane potential was not measured but it is unlikely that it was similar to the calculated equilibrium potential for bicarbonate (Table 1). Plasma and muscle increased markedly following exercise but did not change (Fig. 1). There was a negative linear relationship between and pHa (Fig. 3).

Changes in blood and muscle pH and ammonia concentration were similar to those previously reported for exhaustive activity in trout (Tang and Boutilier, 1991; Wright and Wood, 1988) except that resting ammonia levels were significantly lower than those reported by Wright and Wood (1988). Muscle and Tiamm levels were higher than those in the plasma, and all increased following exercise (Fig. 4). NH4+ was not distributed according to pH but according to membrane potential (Table 3). Calculated values based on the assumption that ammonia is distributed according to pH were different from measured values, whereas the calculated equilibrium potential was similar to that expected for muscle (Hodgkin and Horowicz, 1959), indicating that NH4+ is distributed according to membrane potential.

The data from the saline and bicarbonate infusion experiments cannot be compared directly with the initial data set because the initial set was collected immediately following exercise, whereas data following infusion were collected 15 or 30 min after exercise. Bicarbonate infusion resulted in a rise in plasma pHa, and bicarbonate levels, which were partially corrected after 30 min (Fig. 5). and , however, were lower 30 min after exercise in bicarbonate-infused animals and muscle and bicarbonate and lactate concentrations were unaffected (Fig. 5; Table 4). Muscle pHi increased significantly 30 min after exercise in bicarbonate-infused animals (Table 4). The CO2 partial pressure differences between muscle and plasma decreased 15 min after exercise in bicarbonate-infused animals but returned to normal 30 min after infusion (Table 4).

Bicarbonate infusion caused a significant reduction in plasma total ammonia and NH4+ levels at 15 min, while plasma NH3 partial pressure and lactate levels were elevated at 30 min (Fig. 6). Bicarbonate infusion also raised the muscle total ammonia, NH3 and NH4+ levels and the NH3 partial pressure differences between muscle and plasma (Table 4). The ratio of total ammonia in plasma to that in muscle was lowered after bicarbonate infusion (Table 4). Ammonia excretion by the fish was unaffected by bicarbonate infusion. Ammonia excretion was 536±37μmolh−1kg−1 (mean±s.E., N=6) following saline infusion compared with 543±33μmolh−1kg−1 in bicarbonate-infused fish during the first 30min of the post-exercise period.

The data reported in this study are the only direct measurements of muscle carbon dioxide content in fish. Analysis of these results shows that carbon dioxide is distributed between muscle and plasma according to pH during both rest and exercise in rainbow trout. This pattern is similar to that seen in other vertebrates. The equilibrium potential for bicarbonate is different from the probable membrane potential, indicating that the muscle membranes are not very permeable to bicarbonate. Carbon dioxide must therefore leave the muscle as molecular CO2 rather than as bicarbonate. As expected, is similar to estimates of and is about 0.2 kPa greater than (Fig. 2).

Resting ammonia levels are lower than those reported by Wright and Wood (1988), presumably because of differences in sampling methods. Ammonia levels are elevated by activity and it is difficult to collect a muscle sample without disturbing the fish. Our method minimized this problem and, as a result, we observed much lower muscle ammonia levels and a significantly lower gradient from muscle to blood in resting fish than those reported by Wright and Wood (1988).

Infusion of bicarbonate after exhaustive exercise resulted in an increase in pH and and HCO3 and lactate levels in the blood, but little change in the muscle, except for a small increase in pHi (Figs 5, 6; Table 4). Elevated wholeblood lactate levels could be caused by reduced recycling by the liver or increased flux from the muscle, possibly as a result of the increased blood pH following bicarbonate infusion. The observation that there was a significant increase in blood lactate concentration but no change in muscle lactate concentration following bicarbonate infusion can be explained by the large difference in the pool size of the two compartments. The blood pool of lactate represents only about 3% of the total pool; hence, changes in blood levels would represent only a 1% reduction in the muscle pool and would not be detectable by our methods.

Bicarbonate infusion initially lowered blood Tamm and NH4+ levels but subsequently raised blood NH3 levels. It also caused an increase in muscle NH3 and NH4+ concentrations. This increase in Tamm could be due to an increase in ammonia production or increased ammonia retention in the muscle. The pattern seen during exercise, however, was identical and so it seems unlikely that there were differences in ammonia production. Thus, it seems probable that the increase in muscle Tamm following bicarbonate infusion was due to ammonia retention. Muscle NH3 concentration increased more than total ammonia concentration, reflecting the small increase in muscle pH following bicarbonate infusion, but this cannot explain ammonia retention in the muscle. We did not measure the pH of extracelluar fluid surrounding the muscle, but we assume that bicarbonate infusion resulted in an elevation in pH of fluid around the muscle as well as in blood. The more alkaline extracellular environment will raise NH3 levels and reduce NH3 flux from the muscle; the reverse, however, will be true for NH4+. If NH4+ transfer is the dominant form of ammonia excretion from the muscle, then raising extracellular pH should augment ammonia excretion by reducing extracellular ammonium ion concentrations. Our observations, however, indicate that alkaline conditions cause ammonia retention in the muscle. This indicates that the muscle membrane in fish, like that of mammals, is permeable to NH3 but not to NH4+. This is at odds with our calculations indicating that fish muscle is permeable to NH4+ (Table 3). Clearly this requires further investigation. It appears, however, that an acid extracellular environment enhances ammonia removal from the muscle. The location of carbonic anhydrase on the muscle surface (Sanyal et al. 1982) ensures that any CO2 excreted by the muscle will be rapidly hydrated and will acidify the fluid surrounding the muscle. Thus, it seems likely that CO2 excretion by the muscle will also augment ammonia excretion from that tissue, in a manner similar to that seen in the gills (Wright et al. 1989). Extracellular carbonic anhydrase activity plays a role, therefore, not only in facilitating CO2 transfer but also in augmenting ammonia transfer.

Muscle ammonia concentrations increased but ammonia excretion remained the same in fish infused with bicarbonate compared with those infused with saline, indicating increased ammonia production or a decreased rate of muscle ammonia utilization during recovery. The breakdown of adenylate appears to be the major source of muscle ammonia (Mommsen and Hochachka, 1988). This occurs during exhaustive exercise and was the same in both groups because bicarbonate or saline infusion was given after exercise. During recovery, ammonia and IMP are used as substrates to restore the adenylate pool and this process is well under way after 30 min of recovery (Mommsen and Hochachka, 1988), when we measured muscle ammonia concentrations. The only other measured change in the muscle following bicarbonate infusion was a small rise in pH. This may have been sufficient to delay restoration of the adenylate pool. Alternatively, adenylate breakdown may have continued after exhaustive exercise and resulted in a greater ammonium production in the less acidotic, bicarbonate-infused fish. The pH sensitivity of the various components of the purine nucleotide cycle in fish is not known.

was elevated in both blood and muscle following exercise, as reported by others (see Perry and Wood, 1989), and this was inversely related to pH (Figs 2, 3). A reduction in blood pH causes a Root shift and decreases the oxygen content of the blood, but this does not occur during the acidosis following exercise because of β-adrenergic activation of Na+/H+ exchange by elevated levels of circulating catecholamines, resulting in a rise in erythrocytic pH (Primmett et al. 1986). Thus, as blood flows through the gills, the protons produced by haemoglobin oxygenation fuel both bicarbonate dehydration and Na+/H+ transfer in the red blood cell. In fact, these two mechanisms compete for the available protons as blood passes through the gills. The dumping of protons into the plasma from red blood cells will create a CO2/HCO3 disequilibrium, resulting in a rise in as blood flows away from the gills. Na+/H+ exchange is enhanced at low pH (Nikinmaa et al. 1987), so the extent of proton dumping will be increased by low pH and will result in a larger rise in . This explains the observed inverse relationship between and pHa (Fig. 3) in trout following exhaustive exercise, when levels of circulating catecholamines are elevated. is further elevated following bicarbonate infusion because of an exacerbated CO2/HCO3 disequilibrium.

Boutilier
,
R. G.
,
Heming
,
T. A.
and
Iwama
,
G. K.
(
1984
).
Physicochemical parameters for use in fish respiratory physiology
.
In Fish Physiology
, vol.
10A
(ed.
W. S.
Hoar
and
D. J.
Randall
), pp.
403
430
.
New York
:
Academic Press
.
Boutilter
,
R. G.
,
Iwama
,
G. K.
,
Heming
,
T. A.
and
Randall
,
D. J.
(
1985
).
The apparent pK of carbonic acid in rainbow trout plasma between 5 and 15°C
.
Respir. Physiol
.
61
,
237
254
.
Cameron
,
J. N.
and
Heisler
,
N.
(
1983
).
Studies of ammonia in the rainbow trout: physiochemical parameters, acid-base behaviour and respiratory clearance
.
J. exp. Biol
.
105
,
107
125
.
Gros
,
G.
and
Dodgson
,
S. J.
(
1988
).
Velocity of CO2 exchange in muscle and liver
.
A. Rev. Physiol
.
50
,
669
694
.
Heisler
,
N.
(
1984
).
Acid-base regulation in fishes
.
In Fish Physiology
, vol.
XA
(ed.
W. S.
Hoar
and
D. J.
Randall
), pp.
315
401
.
New York
:
Academic Press
.
Heisler
,
N.
(
1990
).
Mechanisms of ammonia elimination in fishes. In Animal Nutrition and Transport Processes. 2
.
Transport, Respiration and Excretion: Comparative and Environmental Aspects
, vol.
6
(ed.
J. P.
Truchot
an
B.
Lahlou
), pp.
137
151
.
Basel
:
Karger
.
Hodgkin
,
A. L.
and
Horowicz
,
P.
(
1959
).
The influence of potassium and chloride ions on the membrane potential of single muscle fibres
.
J. Physiol., Lond
.
148
,
127
160
.
McDonald
,
D. G.
and
Wood
,
C. M.
(
1981
).
Branchial and renal acid and ion fluxes in the rainbow trout at low environmental pH
.
J. exp. Biol
.
93
,
101
118
.
Milligan
,
C. L.
and
Wood
,
C. M.
(
1986
).
Intracellular and extracellular acid-base status and H+ exchange with the environment after exhaustive exercise in the rainbow trout
.
J. exp. Biol
.
123
,
93
121
.
Milne
,
M. D.
,
Scribner
,
B. H.
and
Crawford
,
M. A.
(
1958
).
Non-ionic diffusion and the excretion of weak acids and bases
.
Am. J. Med
.
24
,
709
729
.
Mommsen
,
T. P.
and
Hochachka
,
P. W.
(
1988
).
The purine nucleotide cycle as two temporally separated metabolic units: a study on trout muscle
.
Metabolism
37
,
552
556
.
Nikinmaa
,
M.
,
Steffensen
,
J.
,
Tufts
,
B.
and
Randall
,
D. J.
(
1987
).
Control of red cell volume and pH in trout. Effects of isoproterenol, transport inhibitors and extracellular pH in bicarbonate/carbon dioxide-buffered media
.
J. exp. Zool
.
242
,
273
281
.
Perry
,
S. F.
(
1986
).
Carbon dioxide excretion in fishes
.
Can. J. Zool
.
64
,
565
572
.
Perry
,
S. F.
and
Wood
,
C. M.
(
1989
).
Control and co-ordination of gas transfer in fishes
.
Can. J. Zool
.
67
,
2961
2970
.
Portner
,
H. O.
,
Boutilier
,
R. G.
,
Tang
,
Y.
and
Toews
,
D. P.
(
1990
).
Determination of intracellular pH and after metabolic inhibition by fluoride and nitrilotriacetic acid
.
Respir. Physiol
.
81
,
255
274
.
Primmett
,
D. R. N.
,
Randall
,
D. J.
,
Mazeaud
,
M.
and
Boutilier
,
R. G.
(
1986
).
The role of catecholamines in erythrocyte pH regulation and oxygen transport in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) during exercise
.
J. exp. Biol
.
122
,
139
148
.
Randall
,
D. J.
(
1990
).
Control and co-ordination of gas exchange in water breathers
.
In Advances in Comparative and Environmental Physiology
, vol.
6
(ed.
R. G.
Boutilier
), pp.
253
278
.
Berlin, Heidelberg
:
Springer-Verlag
.
Sanyal
,
G.
,
Swenson
,
E. R.
and
Maren
,
T. H.
(
1982
).
The isolation of carbonic anhydrase from the muscle of Squalus acanthias and Scomber scombrus: inhibition studies
.
Bull. Mt Desert Isl. biol. Lab
.
24
,
66
68
.
Sigma
(
1982
).
The quantitative ultraviolet determination of ammonia in plasma at 340 nm
.
Sigma Technical Bulletin 170-UV
.
St Louis
:
Sigma Chemical Co
.
Tang
,
Y.
and
Boutilier
,
R. G.
(
1991
).
White muscle intracellular acid-base and lactate status following exhaustive exercise: a comparison between freshwater- and seawater-adapted rainbow trout
.
J. exp. Biol
.
156
,
153
171
.
Wright
,
P. A.
,
Randall
,
D. J.
and
Perry
,
S. F.
(
1989
).
Fish gill water boundary layer: a site of linkage between carbon dioxide and ammonia excretion
.
J. comp. Physiol. B
158
,
627
635
.
Wright
,
P. A.
,
Randall
,
D. J.
and
Wood
,
C. M.
(
1988
).
The distribution of ammonia and H+ between tissue compartments in lemon sole (Parophyrs vetulus) at rest, during hypercapnia and following exercise
.
J. exp. Biol
.
136
,
149
175
.
Wright
,
P. A.
and
Wood
,
C. M.
(
1988
).
Muscle ammonia stores are not determined by pH gradients
.
Fish Physiol. Biochem
.
5
,
159
162
.