Fish have particularly high levels of adult neurogenesis, and this high neurogenic capacity may contribute to behavioural plasticity. While it is known that adult-born cells can differentiate into neurons and incorporate into neural circuits, it is unclear whether they are responsive to external stimuli and thereby capable of contributing to behavioural change. We tested whether cells born in the telencephalon of adult zebrafish are activated by social stimuli. We marked cell birth with BrdU and, 40 d later, exposed fish to brief (15 min) visual social stimuli and assayed cellular activity through immunolocalization of phospho-S6-ribosomal protein (pS6). BrdU+/pS6+ colabeled cells were found in six brain regions, and, in four regions (D, Dl, Dm and POA), the number of colabelled cells and fraction of BrdU+ cells that labeled pS6+ increased during social stimulation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that adult-born neurons play a role in regulating social behaviour.

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