Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a growing environmental problem influencing the fitness of individuals through effects on their physiology and behaviour. Research on animals has primarily focused on effects on behaviour during the night, whereas less is known about effects transferred to daytime. Here, we investigated in the lab the impact of ALAN on the mating behaviour of an ecologically important freshwater amphipod, Gammarus pulex, during both daytime and nighttime. We manipulated the presence of ALAN and the intensity of male–male competition for access to females, and found the impact of ALAN on mating activity to be stronger during daytime than during nighttime, independent of male–male competition. At night, ALAN only reduced the probability of precopula pair formation, while during the daytime, it both decreased general activity and increased the probability of pair separation after pair formation. Thus, ALAN reduced mating success in G. pulex not only directly, through effects on mating behaviour at night, but also indirectly through a carry-over effect on daytime activity and the ability to remain in precopula. These results emphasise the importance of considering delayed effects of ALAN on organisms, including daytime activities that can be more important fitness determinants than nighttime activities.

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