Trace metals such as iron, copper, zinc and manganese play essential roles in various biological processes in fish, including development, energy metabolism and immune response. At embryonic stages, fish obtain essential metals primarily from the yolk, whereas in later life stages (i.e. juvenile and adult), the gastrointestine and the gill are the major sites for the acquisition of trace metals. On a molecular level, the absorption of metals is thought to occur at least in part via specific metal ion transporters, including the divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1), copper transporter-1 (CTR1), and Zrt- and Irt-like proteins (ZIP). A variety of other proteins are also involved in maintaining cellular and systemic metal homeostasis. Interestingly, the expression and function of these metal transport- and metabolism-related proteins can be influenced by a range of trace metals and major ions. Increasing evidence also demonstrates an interplay between the gastrointestine and the gill for the regulation of trace metal absorption. Therefore, there is a complex network of regulatory and compensatory mechanisms involved in maintaining trace metal balance. Yet, an array of factors is known to influence metal metabolism in fish, such as hormonal status and environmental changes. In this Review, we summarize the physiological significance of iron, copper, zinc and manganese, and discuss the current state of knowledge on the mechanisms underlying transepithelial metal ion transport, metal–metal interactions, and cellular and systemic handling of these metals in fish. Finally, we identify knowledge gaps in the regulation of metal homeostasis and discuss potential future research directions.

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