Whereas recent studies demonstrated a well-defined nuclear architecture in human sperm nuclei, little is known about the mode of DNA compaction above the elementary structural unit of nucleoprotamine toroids. Here, using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) with arm-specific DNA probes of chromosomes 1, 2 and 5, we visualized arm domains and established hierarchical levels of sperm chromatin structures. The compact chromosome territories, which in sperm have a preferred intranuclear localization, have an extended conformation represented by a 2000 nm chromatin fiber. This fiber is composed of a 1000 nm chromatin thread bent at 180° near centromere. Two threads of 1000 nm, representing p-arm and q-arm chromatin, run in antiparallel fashion and join at the telomeres. Each 1000 nm thread, in turn, resolves into two rows of chromatin globules 500 nm in diameter interconnected with thinner chromatin strands. We propose a unified comprehensive model of chromosomal and nuclear architecture in human sperm that, as we suggest, is important for successful fertilization and early development.