Cover: The composite image depicts the association of mature vaccinia virions expressing a fluorescent core protein (cyan) with microtubules (orange) in vitro. Spinning disc confocal microscopy was employed to acquire the images, which were processed using Adobe Photoshop and Fiji (ImageJ). See article by A. Xu et al. (jcs260175).
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Special Issue: Cell Biology of Motors
CELL SCIENTISTS TO WATCH
The potential of myosin and actin in nanobiotechnology
Summary: This Perspective highlights potentials and challenges as well as insights from using actin and myosin in nanobiotechnological applications, such as biosensing and parallel computation.
CELL SCIENCE AT A GLANCE
Non-muscle myosin 2 at a glance
Summary: Non-muscle myosin 2 functions broadly as the dominant contractile motor protein in most cells.
Causes, costs and consequences of kinesin motors communicating through the microtubule lattice
Summary: Kinesins can alter the microtubule track while they are walking on it. Thus, the microtubule is not simply a track for kinesin motility but a medium through which motors and microtubules can influence each other.
Endosomal sorting sorted – motors, adaptors and lessons from in vitro and cellular studies
Summary: In this Review, we discuss recent studies to highlight what is known about the regulation of endosomal vesicle positioning and transport by motors and cargo adaptors.
Dynein at the kinetochore
Summary: The Review summarizes current knowledge about how dynein at the kinetochore contributes to efficient and accurate spindle assembly and describes the underlying molecular mechanisms.
Insight into the regulation of axonal transport from the study of KIF1A-associated neurological disorder
Summary: KIF1A is a molecular motor that is essential for axonal transport and synaptogenesis. Here, we review research on disease-associated KIF1A mutations, which has revealed important properties of the KIF1A motor and its regulation.
Choreographing the motor-driven endosomal dance
Summary: Endosomal transport requires dynein and kinesin motors to associate with the endosomal membrane and the microtubule. We summarize the factors regulating these different interactions thereby tuning the fascinating endosomal dance.
Go with the flow – bulk transport by molecular motors
Summary: Large cells often use the bulk movement of cytoplasm, known as cytoplasmic streaming, for intracellular transport. Here we describe how molecular motors and cytoskeletal tracks can generate streaming.
Myosin-X recruits lamellipodin to filopodia tips
Summary: Myosin-X transports lamellipodin (RAPH1) to filopodia tips to regulate filopodia functions.
Transient accumulation and bidirectional movement of KIF13B in primary cilia
Summary: KIF13B moves in bursts within primary cilia of cultured human cells, providing the first evidence of intraciliary movement by a vertebrate kinesin other than kinesin-2 motors.
The kinesin-5 protein Cut7 moves bidirectionally on fission yeast spindles with activity that increases in anaphase
Summary: The fission yeast kinesin-5 motor Cut7 moves bidirectionally on spindles in cells and its activity increases at the onset of anaphase B.
RNA localization to the mitotic spindle is essential for early development and is regulated by kinesin-1 and dynein
Summary: Transcripts of genes regulating mitosis localize to the spindle in a manner dependent on microtubules, kinesin-1 and dynein. For Aurora B, this is dependent upon its 3′UTR and is essential for embryonic development.
StARD9 is a novel lysosomal kinesin required for membrane tubulation, cholesterol transport and Purkinje cell survival
Summary: StARD9 is a novel lysosomal kinesin that functions with genes implicated in Niemann–Pick type C disease to drive lysosomal tubulation. The loss of tubulation is proposed as a defect in Niemann–Pick type C disease.
Myo19 tethers mitochondria to endoplasmic reticulum-associated actin to promote mitochondrial fission
Summary: Mitochondrial homeostasis requires regulated fission, which frequently occurs at mitochondria–ER contacts. Mitochondrially associated Myo19 binds ER-associated F-actin, tethering the organelles to promote fission.
Preferential recruitment and stabilization of Myosin II at compartment boundaries in Drosophila
Summary: FRAP and photoconversion experiments reveal that the motor protein Myosin II is preferentially recruited and stabilized at cell junctions during the formation of compartment boundaries in Drosophila.
Multiple interactions of the dynein-2 complex with the IFT-B complex are required for effective intraflagellar transport
Summary: The dynein-2 complex, a motor for retrograde protein trafficking within cilia, must be transported anterogradely as a cargo via extensive interactions of the dynein-2 complex with the IFT-B complex.
Lis1–dynein drives corona compaction and limits erroneous microtubule attachment at kinetochores
Summary: Lis1, which is mutated in the severe neurodevelopmental disease lissencephaly, promotes dynein-dependent corona disassembly and accurate microtubule attachment at kinetochores.
Disease-associated mutations in WDR34 lead to diverse impacts on the assembly and function of dynein-2
Summary: Disease-associated mutations in WDR34 are found to have diverse impacts on ciliogenesis and cilia function following stable expression in a WDR34-knockout cell model.
A conditional null allele of Dync1h1 enables targeted analyses of dynein roles in neuronal length sensing
Summary: A new mouse model with a conditional deletion of dynein heavy chain 1 confirms that dynein has roles in axonal growth regulation, including axon length sensing, retrograde injury signaling and nerve regeneration.
Actin turnover protects the cytokinetic contractile ring from structural instability
Summary: Molecularly explicit simulations show that cofilin-mediated actin severing protects the fission yeast cytokinetic contractile ring from instabilities in which actin peels away into straight bridges.
Kinesin-1 transports morphologically distinct intracellular virions during vaccinia infection
Summary: The kinesin-1 motor mediates anterograde microtubule-based transport of the intracellular mature and enveloped forms of vaccinia virus in cells and in vitro.
Kif9 is an active kinesin motor required for ciliary beating and proximodistal patterning of motile axonemes
Summary: An understudied kinesin, Kif9, is necessary for proximal to distal patterning of the motile cilium.
Potent microtubule-depolymerizing activity of a mitotic Kif18b–MCAK–EB network
Summary: Mitosis-specific kinesin-8 Kif18b associates with kinesin-13 MCAK and the end-binding protein EB3, and promotes their accumulation at microtubule plus ends to increase microtubule catastrophe and reduce microtubule length.
TOOLS AND RESOURCES
Estimation of microtubule-generated forces using a DNA origami nanospring
Summary: A DNA molecule folded in a shape of a spring is used to measure forces generated by dynamic microtubule ends, and to record single-molecule fluorescence at the site of force generation.
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Call for papers: Cell and Tissue Polarity
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FocalPlane Image Competition 2023
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