CELL SCIENCE AT A GLANCE
Summary: Mutations in PP2A subunits are associated with neurodevelopmental diseases. Here, we provide an overview of biochemical and functional implications of the de novo mutations reported on PP2A subunits.
The evolution of autophagy proteins – diversification in eukaryotes and potential ancestors in prokaryotes
Summary: Autophagy is conserved in most eukaryotes but not in prokaryotes; this Review summarizes the evolution of autophagy proteins within eukaryotes, and for some of them, even from prokaryotes.
Super-resolution microscopy reveals the arrangement of inner membrane protein complexes in mammalian mitochondria
Highlighted Article: Super-resolution microscopy and density-based cluster analysis illuminate the arrangement of mitochondrial inner membrane proteins, providing insight into the cellular context of these proteins.
Embryonic stem cells are devoid of macropinocytosis, a trafficking pathway for activin A in differentiated cells
Summary: Activin A is internalised and signals through clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis in differentiated endothelial cells, while in pluripotent stem cells macropinocytosis is not active.
Summary: Analyses of cells cultured on synthetic substrata revealed that substratum stiffness signals through CFTR and Ca2+ channels to regulate membrane voltage in mammary epithelial cells.
Deletion of TRPV3 and CaV3.2 T-type channels in mice undermines fertility and Ca2+ homeostasis in oocytes and eggs
Summary: Electrophysiology and Ca2+-imaging studies revealed that Ca2+ influx via TRPV3, CaV3.2 and TRPM7 ion channels supports the filling of the Ca2+ stores in mouse oocytes and eggs.
Summary: Mutations of genes encoding presenilin lead to familial forms of Alzheimer's disease. We propose the sea urchin embryo as a model to study the expression of presenilin
The role of Mfn2 in the structure and function of endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial tethering in vivo
Summary:In vivo evidence demonstrating that Mfn2 acts as an endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria tethering protein and regulates close contacts related to Ca2+ transfer in neuronal cells.
Maintenance of complex I and its supercomplexes by NDUF-11 is essential for mitochondrial structure, function and health
Summary: Destabilisation of complex I and its supercomplexes by removal of the assembly factor NDUF-11 severely affects balanced respiration, mitochondrial morphology and, ultimately, whole animal physiology.
Summary: SENP3 and SENP5 deSUMOylate Aurora A to suppress its hyperactivity on the spindle at metaphase. The SENP3/5-AurA axis regulates chromosome segregation to maintain genomic stability.
Highlighted Article: The precision and adaptability of cytoskeletal functions requires coupled activities of cytoskeletal subsystems. Fmn2 is a co-regulator of actin–microtubule dynamics necessary for neuronal chemotaxis.
Sequences in the stalk domain regulate auto-inhibition and ciliary tip localization of the immotile kinesin-4 KIF7
Highlighted Article: KIF7 is regulated by auto-inhibition, and human disease-associated mutations cause uniform binding along cytosolic microtubules and/or increased primary cilium localization.
Highlighted Article: Fascin and focal adhesion kinase work in conjunction to regulate cell morphology during shape-altering processes such as furrow formation by controlling height and adhesion area, respectively.
DNA polymerase η is a substrate for calpain: a possible mechanism for pol η retention in UV-induced replication foci
Summary: Calpain cleaves the translesion DNA polymerase η and potentially prevents its premature removal from chromatin after UV irradiation, pointing to a role for calpain in DNA damage response.
TOOLS AND RESOURCES
Summary: We report a new method for quantification of nuclear import–export rates based on optogenetic reversible release of mitochondria-tethered proteins and validate the method using the transcription factors YAP1 and TAZ.