CELL SCIENTISTS TO WATCH
CELL SCIENCE AT A GLANCE
Summary: The regulation of protein synthesis is altered in many cancers. This article discusses the role of translation initiation in cancer, including recent advances detailing new targets and therapeutic opportunities.
Hit the brakes – a new perspective on the loop extrusion mechanism of cohesin and other SMC complexes
Summary: Co-existing mechanisms underlying sister chromatid tethering and loop extrusion by structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) cohesins complex are discussed. The model is extended to include all eukaryotic SMC complexes.
Summary: A review of how the molecular condensation machinery drives dynamic assembly of the yeast macromolecular polarisome complex, and thereby, its activities in actin polymerization and polarized growth.
The association of Plk1 with the astrin–kinastrin complex promotes formation and maintenance of a metaphase plate
Highlighted Article: Plk1 binds to and phosphorylates the N-terminus of astrin. This promotes recruitment of the astrin complex to kinetochores and stabilises microtubule–kinetochore attachments in situations when mitosis is delayed.
Kindlin-2 promotes rear focal adhesion disassembly and directional persistence during cell migration
Summary: Cell migration is a polarized process that requires adhesion release at the cell rear. Kindlin-2 regulates actomyosin contraction and promotes focal adhesion disassembly and directional persistence at the cell rear.
Summary: Migratory plasticity between blebbing and lamellipodia in normal breast cells and breast cancer cells depends on non-muscle myosin II activity, which is fine tuned by ROCK and MLCK.
Summary: Expression and functional studies demonstrate that an epigenetic factor, histone chaperone APLF, plays a significant role in the development and implantation of mouse embryo.
Distinct roles for prominin-1 and photoreceptor cadherin in outer segment disc morphogenesis in CRISPR-altered X. laevis
Highlighted Article: Prominin-1 aligns and reinforces the leading edges and photoreceptor cadherin maintains higher-order organization. Both prominin-1 and photoreceptor cadherin regulate nascent disc membrane size.
The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST mediates hypoxia-induced endothelial autophagy and angiogenesis via AMPK activation
Highlighted Article: The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST is identified as a major regulator of hypoxia-induced AMPK activation in endothelial cells, which consequently leads to autophagy and angiogenesis.
Summary: Inhibition of Slc7a7 or Slc1a5 glutamine transporters prevents WNT-stimulated uptake and blocks osteoblast differentiation, establishing Slc7a7 and Slc1a5 as critical mediators of this process.
Summary: The tight junction protein Claudin-5 plays an essential role during zebrafish embryonic development by limiting the motility and enhancing the adhesion of arterial endothelial cells.
Concurrent depletion of Vps37 proteins evokes ESCRT-I destabilization and profound cellular stress responses
Summary: Endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-I destabilization upon concurrent depletion of Vps37 proteins is linked to the activation of a sterile inflammatory response and cell growth inhibition.
Mammary mechanobiology – investigating roles for mechanically activated ion channels in lactation and involution
Highlighted Article: PIEZO1 mechanically activated ion channels are enriched in the mouse mammary gland during lactation but are not essential for mammary epithelial cell function or post-lactational regression in vivo.
Highlighted Article: Analyses in vitro and in human and rat cells reveal that UNC-45A is a microtubule-destabilizing protein that acts on microtubules independently of its effects on non-muscle myosin II.
TOOLS AND RESOURCES
Summary: Serial-section electron microscopy combined with immunogold labeling shows that internalized gap junctions undergo complex processing of both inner and outer membranes.