CELL SCIENTISTS TO WATCH
CELL SCIENCE AT A GLANCE
Summary: An outline of the processes by which epithelial tumours regulate their tumour microenvironment, and how new insights into tumour–microenvironment interactions have led to ideas on targeting it as treatments.
Summary: Traveling through the ER, Ca2+ is transported towards membrane contact sites with mitochondria or endolysosomes, where it plays key roles in the regulation of essential organellar biology, which are reviewed here.
Summary: This Review presents evidence that Notch signaling is directly and indirectly mechanosensitive, and discusses engineered and computational approaches to help unravel its complex dynamics.
Summary: Golgi stacks are scattered in the cytoplasm of Drosophila cells. Sec71 is required for separating Golgi stacks, as its impairment, for example, through brefeldin A (BFA) treatment, produces Golgi aggregations termed BFA bodies.
Mitochondria control mTORC1 activity-linked compartmentalization of eIF4E to regulate extracellular export of microRNAs
Summary:Mitochondrial activity and tethering with the ER are linked to compartmentalization of the translation initiation factor eIF4E to the polysomes, which controls miRNA-mediated repression and miRNA export.
A novel mitosis-specific Cep215 domain interacts with Cep192 and phosphorylated Aurora A for organization of spindle poles
Summary: A mitosis-specific centrosome-targeting domain of Cep215 binds Cep192 and phosphorylated Aurora A to play a role in maintaining the structural integrity of spindle poles during mitosis.
Summary: The Wilson disease protein ATP7B utilizes lysosomal exocytosis to export excess copper in hepatocytes. The retromer complex retrieves ATP7B from endolysosomes and recycles it back to the trans-Golgi network.
Disrupting polycystin-2 EF hand Ca2+ affinity does not alter channel function or contribute to polycystic kidney disease
Summary: A refutation of a common hypothesis regarding Ca2+ control mechanisms of polycystin-2 – a primary cilia ion channel, the dysregulation of which causes autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
Summary: Constitutively active and truncated EGFR transcriptionally represses integrins via a SHC–MEK signaling axis, and communicates with neighboring cells through TNFα to promote cooperative invasion.
Summary: USP8 interacts with and deubiquitylates TrkB neurotrophin receptors, regulating levels of both total and activated receptors and BDNF-dependent differentiation of hippocampal neurons.
Highlighted Article: CD301, a C-type lectin domain family 10 member, is driven by IL-4 and mediates macrophage fusion for the formation of multinucleated giant cells.
ESCRT recruitment by the S. cerevisiae inner nuclear membrane protein Heh1 is regulated by Hub1-mediated alternative splicing
Highlighted Article: Heh1-S, the inner nuclear membrane protein resulting from Hub1-mediated splicing of HEH1 pre-mRNA, contributes to nuclear envelope maintenance by preventing excessive recruitment of the ESCRT adaptor Chm7.
The budding yeast Start repressor Whi7 differs in regulation from Whi5, emerging as a major cell cycle brake in response to stress
Highlighted Article: Cells can use the interplay between functionally redundant but differentially regulated cell-cycle repressors in order to confer new repression capabilities and to respond to specific cellular conditions.
A piggybacking mechanism enables peroxisomal localization of the glyoxylate cycle enzyme Mdh2 in yeast
Highlighted Article: Yeast Mdh2 is dually localized to the cytosol and peroxisomes, and is targeted to peroxisomes via association with Mdh3 and a Pex5-dependent piggybacking mechanism.
Sequential peripheral enrichment of H2A.Zac and H3K9me2 during trophoblast differentiation in human embryonic stem cells
Highlighted Article: As early as 12 hours after embryonic stem cells begin differentiating to trophoblasts, acetylated H2A.Z becomes enriched at the nuclear periphery; we find that loss of H2A.Z acetylation is followed sequentially by enrichment of dimethylated H3K9.
TOOLS AND RESOURCES
Trackosome: a computational toolbox to study the spatiotemporal dynamics of centrosomes, nuclear envelope and cellular membrane
Summary: Development of a new image analysis toolbox called Trackosome and its use to study nuclear envelope oscillations during early mitosis and correlations between the trajectories of the centrosomes.