Cover: Winning image, ‘Owl Eyes’, from the 2020 FocalPlane image competition, taken by Tejeshwar Rao from Alexa L. Mattheyses’ lab at the University of Alabama, USA. The image depicts a duplicated Cos-7 cell plated on a tension gauge tether surface. After stimulation with epidermal growth factor (EGF), the cell was fixed and stained for F-actin (orange hot) using phalloidin and for focal adhesions (blue-green) using a paxillin antibody. Integrin forces (i.e. open tension probes) are shown in greyscale. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy was employed to acquire the images, which were processed using NIS Elements and reconstructed in Fiji (ImageJ).
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Hypothesis-driven quantitative fluorescence microscopy – the importance of reverse-thinking in experimental design
Summary: A guide on how to appropriately design hypothesis-driven, quantitative fluorescence microscopy experiments using a reverse logic.
CELL SCIENCE AT A GLANCE
FGF2 and IL-1β – explorers of unconventional secretory pathways at a glance
Summary: A close look at recent studies on FGF2 and IL-1β that produced breakthrough discoveries revealing the molecular mechanisms of unconventional protein secretion in mammalian cells.
The pivotal role of ERp44 in patrolling protein secretion
Summary: A review of how ERp44 is key in sculpting the composition of the secretome and of the organelles of the early secretory pathway.
Mitochondrial survivin reduces oxidative phosphorylation in cancer cells by inhibiting mitophagy
Summary: Mitochondrial survivin, which is found exclusively in cancer cells, prevents removal of defective mitochondria, impairing respiration; cancer cells respond by switching to glycolysis to survive.
A novel coordinated function of Myosin II with GOLPH3 controls centralspindlin localization during cytokinesis in Drosophila
Summary: During cytokinesis, non-muscle Myosin II controls centralspindlin maintenance at the cleavage furrow and actomyosin ring constriction by recruiting the PI(4)P-binding protein GOLPH3.
Palmitoylated CKAP4 regulates mitochondrial functions through an interaction with VDAC2 at ER–mitochondria contact sites
Summary: CKAP4 plays a role in maintaining mitochondrial functions through the binding to VDAC2 at ER–mitochondria contact sites in a palmitoylation-dependent manner.
RNF144a induces ERK-dependent cell death under oxidative stress via downregulation of vaccinia-related kinase 3
Summary: RNF144a-mediated VRK3 degradation under oxidative stress leads to persistent ERK activation and promotes apoptosis.
An autophagy-dependent tubular lysosomal network synchronizes degradative activity required for muscle remodeling
Summary: Autophagy-dependent formation of an extensive Syntaxin17-marked tubular network synchronizes degradative activity across a broad region of remodeling muscle during Drosophila development.
Identification of key features required for efficient S-acylation and plasma membrane targeting of sprouty-2
Highlighted Article: S-acylation of the tumour suppressor protein sprouty-2 requires specific cysteine and charged residues in the cysteine-rich domain, and regulates plasma membrane targeting.
The yeast FIT2 homologs are necessary to maintain cellular proteostasis and membrane lipid homeostasis
Highlighted Article: In yeast, FIT2 homologs play a dual role in maintaining cellular proteostasis and membrane lipid homeostasis. The unfolded protein response is necessary to replace their function if they are ablated.
An evolutionarily distinct chaperone promotes 20S proteasome α-ring assembly in plants
Highlighted Article: PBAC5 is an evolutionarily distinct chaperone that forms a tripartite complex with PBAC1 and PBAC2 to promote assembly of the 20S proteasome α-ring in Arabidopsis.
Mitotic checkpoint protein Mad1 is required for early Nup153 recruitment to chromatin and nuclear envelope integrity
Highlighted Article: The mitotic checkpoint protein Mad1 is required for Nup153 recruitment to anaphase chromatin and, in turn, for post-mitotic but not interphase nuclear pore complex assembly.
Periodic subcellular structures undergo long-range synchronized reorganization during C. elegans epidermal development
Highlighted Article: By using C. elegans epidermis as a model, we find that periodically organized subcellular structures perform synchronized duplication to increase their numbers and accommodate epidermal cell growth.
TOOLS AND RESOURCES
Differentiation of ciliated human midbrain-derived LUHMES neurons
Summary: Using LUHMES, a ciliated human neuronal cell model, the underlying ‘neurobiology’ of cilia and ciliopathies can be investigated along a complete time line of neuron differentiation.
Reasons to submit to Journal of Cell Science
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Call for papers: Cell and Tissue Polarity
We are welcoming submissions for our next special issue, which will focus on ‘Cell and tissue polarity’ and will be guest edited by David Bryant. Submission deadline: 15 July.
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Propose a new Workshop for 2025
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FocalPlane Image Competition 2023
FocalPlane’s 2023 image competition is underway, in celebration of the community site’s third birthday. Click here for submission details and information on how to showcase your favourite image.