CELL SCIENTISTS TO WATCH
CELL SCIENCE AT A GLANCE
Summary: Very little is known about whether, and how, prokaryotes sense and respond to mechanical inputs. We review the emerging field of bacterial mechanosensing and indicate promising directions for future investigation.
Microtubule acetylation but not detyrosination promotes focal adhesion dynamics and astrocyte migration
Summary: Microtubule acetylation and detyrosination are independently regulated and have distinct functions during migration, with microtubule acetylation facilitating the turnover of focal adhesions.
Phosphorylation at distinct subcellular locations underlies specificity in mTORC2-mediated activation of SGK1 and Akt
Summary: The highly related but functionally distinct kinases, Akt and SGK1, are uniquely targeted by mTORC2; SGK1, but not Akt, requires mTORC2 phosphorylation at a perinuclear compartment for its activation.
ERK1/2 phosphorylates HIF-2α and regulates its activity by controlling its CRM1-dependent nuclear shuttling
Summary: Phosphorylation by ERK1/2 stimulates transcriptional activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-2α by inhibiting its CRM1- and NES-dependent nuclear export.
Highlighted Article: When fed to Drosophila, the irritant DSS reproducibly damages basement membranes around the midgut. We show that this damage is repaired by a mechanism that requires matrix replacement and crosslinking.
NHX-type Na+(K+)/H+ antiporters are required for TGN/EE trafficking and endosomal ion homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana
Summary: Plant NHX cation/proton exchangers are important for endosomal function and protein trafficking, highlighting the importance of controlling intracellular pH and ion homeostasis.
Distinct functions of a cGMP-dependent protein kinase in nerve terminal growth and synaptic vesicle cycling
Summary: This work highlights the multifaceted nature of kinases and provides mechanistic insight into how neurons balance synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis by identifying a cGMP-dependent protein kinase as a key regulator.
VAPB depletion alters neuritogenesis and phosphoinositide balance in motoneuron-like cells: relevance to VAPB-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Summary: VAPB downregulation delays neurite elongation and increases Golgi- and acidic vesicle-associated phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate in motoneuron-like cells, suggesting novel mechanisms for VAPB-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Summary: ATP and AMP import from external environments modifies growth control in yeast and man.
Summary: This study characterizes the localization of Jub during development in Drosophila, and identifies a novel role for Jub in controlling myosin distribution and epithelial organization through regulation of cytohesin localization.
Summary: Post-translational modifications, and in particular SUMOylation, of the nuclear basket subcomplex of the nuclear pore complex serve in its function as a sensor for mediating cellular stress signals.
Highlighted Article: Although small-molecule and neuropeptide transmitters are packaged independently, a receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase regulates packaging of both transmitter classes, establishing a mechanism for scaling co-transmission.
Summary: Deletion of TMEM30A in endothelial cells causes impaired cell proliferation, reduced tip cells and delayed vascular development toward the deep layers in the retina.
NIK–IKK complex interaction controls NF-κB-dependent inflammatory activation of endothelium in response to LTβR ligation
Highlighted Article: Accumulation of NIK, resulting from ligation of the lymphotoxin-β receptor, induces long-term IKK complex activation and potent enhancement of canonical NF-κB-mediated inflammation in human vascular endothelial cells.
A nuclear localization signal targets tail-anchored membrane proteins to the inner nuclear envelope in plants
Highlighted Article: A nuclear localization signal and a terminal transmembrane domain are sufficient to allow trafficking of proteins to the inner nuclear envelope in plants.
Talin-mediated force transmission and talin rod domain unfolding independently regulate adhesion signaling
Highlighted Article: Transmission of mechanical forces through talin regulates adhesion complex composition and phosphotyrosine signaling. Talin rod subdomains and their mechanical activation are required for cell polarization and migration.