Summary: This Review will attempt to collate key characteristics of the different types of endosomes and provide a platform for discussion of this unique and fascinating collection of organelles.
Highlighted Article: Micronuclei, which are common in cancer cells, are prone to missegregation owing to kinetochore assembly defects. This represents a mechanism to delay the reincorporation of excess chromosome(s) and/or damaged DNA.
Summary: Cohesin methylation is a novel post-translational modification implicated in DNA repair in the fission yeast S. pombe.
Mechanical stability of the cell nucleus – roles played by the cytoskeleton in nuclear deformation and strain recovery
Summary: The viscoelastic parameters of the cell membrane, cytoskeleton and nucleus are decoupled, and the roles played by cytoskeleton in maintaining nuclear mechanical stability are deciphered.
Summary: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) show a tumor-like phenotype by re-programming lipid metabolism and amplifying MTOCs. Restoration of PEDF in CAFs highlights a new lipid–MTOC axis.
The effect of gap junction-mediated transfer of miR-200b on osteogenesis and angiogenesis in a co-culture of MSCs and HUVECs
Highlighted Article: TGF-β triggers transfer of miR-200 from BMSCs to HUVECs via gap junctions to promote osteogenesis in BMSCs and inhibit the formation of vascular-like structures by HUVECs.
Highlighted Article: The Las17 complex, HOG pathway and CWI pathway are involved in the cell wall integrity checkpoint. We also reveal the signal transduction mechanism of this checkpoint.
Wnt7b signalling through Frizzled-7 receptor promotes dendrite development by coactivating CaMKII and JNK
Summary: Fz7 functions as a Wnt7b receptor to modulate dendrite development and complexity by coactivating the CaMKII and JNK signalling cascades.
Highlighted Article: By expressing fusions between PP1 and NIPP1, we selectively study the function of the PP1:NIPP1 holoenzyme and find that this phosphatase limits the capacity to repair DNA double-strand breaks.
Summary: A genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila identifies MASK as a positive regulator of the JAK/STAT signalling via stabilisation of the pathway receptor. This function is conserved in human cells.
Epigenetic alterations mediate iPSC-induced normalization of DNA repair gene expression and TNR stability in Huntington's disease cells
Summary: Cellular reprogramming of Huntington's disease cells to pluripotency causes upregulation of DNA repair genes and stabilizes trinucleotide repeats. The process is mediated by an increase in hydroxymethylation pathways.
P1 promoter-driven HNF4α isoforms are specifically repressed by β-catenin signaling in colorectal cancer cells
Summary: This study demonstrates that P1 and P2 promoter-driven HNF4α isoforms regulate different biologically relevant transcriptomic signatures in colorectal cancer cells, and are differently regulated from oncogenic β-catenin activation.
ATAD3 controls mitochondrial cristae structure in mouse muscle, influencing mtDNA replication and cholesterol levels
Highlighted Article: Here, we show that mice without ATAD3 in muscle develop a myopathy associated with early abnormal mitochondrial cristae structure, followed by defects in lipid transport and mitochondrial DNA maintenance.
Sequential binding of ezrin and moesin to L-selectin regulates monocyte protrusive behaviour during transendothelial migration
Summary: Ezrin and moesin co-ordinate binding to L-selectin in monocytes to, respectively, regulate pseudopod protrusion and ectodomain shedding during transendothelial migration.