CELL SCIENCE AT A GLANCE
Summary: This Review highlights the common signalling pathways in macrophage and osteoclast multinucleation. This basic cell phenomenon which underlies various complex diseases is poorly understood.
CCAR-1 affects hemidesmosome biogenesis by regulating unc-52/perlecan alternative splicing in the C. elegans epidermis
Summary: Loss of CCAR-1 function during C. elegans embryogenesis results in dysregulated alternative splicing of unc-52 (the homolog of mammalian perlecan) and hemidesmosome disruption.
Studying meiotic cohesin in somatic cells reveals that Rec8-containing cohesin requires Stag3 to function and is regulated by Wapl and sororin
Summary: Rec8-mediated cohesion is reconstituted in a somatic cell line and shown to chiefly depend on co-expression of Stag3. Rec8–Stag3-containing cohesin is antagonised by Wapl and protected by sororin.
Summary: In addition to its canonical pathway, the photoreceptor melanopsin (Opn4) signals through G proteins βγ and αi and controls several major signaling pathways, which may explain its multi-functionality.
Tricellular junction proteins promote disentanglement of daughter and neighbour cells during epithelial cytokinesis
Highlighted Article: Daughter-neighbour cell disentanglement during multicellular cytokinesis is driven by the coordinated basal descent of the midbody and de novo assembly of tricellular septate junctions.
Summary: In S. cerevisiae, the length of cytoplasmic microtubule is kept short by Kip2p function during G1-S phase to allow for separation of SPBs and proper chromosome capture.
Proteasome stress leads to APP axonal transport defects by promoting its amyloidogenic processing in lysosomes
Summary: Proteasome inhibition induces rapid and significant reductions of APP axonal transport towards synapses due to increased cell body amyloidogenic processing of APP in lysosomes.
ARF6 protects sister chromatid cohesion to ensure the formation of stable kinetochore-microtubule attachments
Summary: The GTPase ARF6 protects sister chromatid cohesion, allowing the establishment of stable kinetochore-microtubule attachments, SAC satisfaction and mitotic progression.
Summary: The actin and actin-associated protein structures in the sperm tail are revealed by means of STORM. In particular, actin forms a double helix in the midpiece, a novel architectural organization in eukaryotic cells.
Highlighted Article: A genome-wide screen in budding yeast reveals that the functional status of vacuoles is relayed to lipid droplets to regulate their efficient utilization, independently of lipophagy.
Summary: Activation of SMAD1/5/8 via endogenous wild-type ALK2 by activin A, activin B and certain BMPs is enhanced when BMPR2 levels are knocked down.
Highlighted Article: The lectin galectin-3 redistributes β1-integrins and elevates their apical cell surface delivery to promote accurate tubulocyst formation.
Summary: Misfolded SOD1 contributes to ubiquitin proteasome system dysfunction in a cell model of ALS. Hence, ubiquitin homeostasis is an important marker of changes in ALS pathology.
Highlighted Article: Transient receptor potential channel polycystin-2 (PC2) associates with the endosomal sorting complex retromer in a manner that appears to be required for trafficking of PC1 to cilia.
Summary: Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL1β and TNFα promote RANKL-dependent adseverin expression and osteoclastogenesis. A novel method for isolating osteoclast subpopulations based on ploidy status was developed.
TOOLS AND RESOURCES
Microtubules as platforms for probing liquid–liquid phase separation in cells – application to RNA-binding proteins
Summary: Confining RNA-binding proteins on microtubules allows analysis of the mixing and demixing of coexisting RNA-rich sub-compartments with liquid-like properties in living cells.