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JCS PRIZE

CELL SCIENTISTS TO WATCH

CELL SCIENCE AT A GLANCE

Summary: Cell- and tissue-polarity protein complexes are modular and generate diverse types of polarity, including epithelial, migratory and stem cell polarities, and contribute to cell fate specification.

COMMENTARY

Summary: Autophagy is a conserved intracellular degradation system. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of autophagosome–lysosome fusion and discuss the remaining questions of the field.

SHORT REPORTS

Summary: Microtubule-associated protein-4 (MAP4) regulates early T cell signaling by controlling microtubule stability and CD3ζ-bearing nanovesicle dynamics. MAP4 also acts by balancing earlier and later T cell activation events.

Summary: Upon reduction of N-glycosylation, E-cadherin is not efficiently localized in the cell–cell contact site contributing to adhesion defects in the two-cell C. elegans embryo. This phenotype is rescued by concomitant loss of cell polarity.

Summary: This study shows that the motility of kinesin mutants can differ significantly between in vitro and in vivo conditions and that abundant processive motility is important for the kinesin function of FRA1.

RESEARCH ARTICLES

Highlighted Article: Non-coding Y RNAs are essential for DNA replication. We show that they associate with euchromatin in a cell cycle-regulated manner in concordance with the origin recognition complex, suggesting a concerted function.

Summary: A unique transgenic mouse model was used to demonstrate that loss of maternal Pericentrin (Pcnt) leads to highly error-prone meiotic division and severely reduced female fertility, with spindle formation becoming reliant on Ran GTPase activity.

Highlighted Article: This study shows that force transduction is mediated by the focal adhesion targeting domain of p130Cas.

Summary: Uncouplers activate mitochondrial degradation in heteroplasmic yeast zygotes and prevent clonal expansion of selfish mitochondrial DNA. This effect requires mitochondrial fission and autophagy.

Highlighted Article: In human dendritic cells, the membrane component of the NADPH oxidase NOX2 complex is initially recruited to phagosomes from the plasma membrane, and oxidized NOX2 complex subunits are replenished from a lysosomal pool.

Summary: Combination of super-resolution SPEED microscopy and nanobody specific labeling of nucleoporins can be used to map the radial and axial distributions of scaffold proteins in native nuclear pore complexes.

Highlighted Article: The exotoxin mycolactone interferes with the biogenesis of the majority of transmembrane proteins and its actions highlight differences in how distinct classes of these proteins initially engage the Sec61 translocon.

Summary: During valvulogenesis, opposing signals generated by different combinations of ErbB dimers regulate cell proliferation. HB-EGF-activated ErbB4 variant JM-A, which can release its intracellular domain, is required to suppress this proliferation.

TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

Highlighted Article: Here, we show how new 3D electron microscopy techniques can be extended to investigate ultrastructural protein localization in order to advance insight into mechanisms of gap junction internalization.

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