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CELL SCIENCE AT A GLANCE
Role of connexin 43 in different forms of intercellular communication – gap junctions, extracellular vesicles and tunnelling nanotubes
Summary: We give an overview of the intercellular communication mechanisms involving Cx43, describing the role played by Cx43 in gap junctions, tunnelling nanotubes and extracellular vesicles.
Summary: Elevated tension in a cell hinders clathrin-mediated endocytosis through inhibition of de novo coat initiation, elongation of clathrin coat lifetimes, and reduction of high magnitude growth rates.
COG7 deficiency in Drosophila generates multifaceted developmental, behavioral and protein glycosylation phenotypes
Highlighted Article: A Drosophila model of congenital disorders of glycosylation diseases (mutation of Cog7) suggests that modulating secretory trafficking could provide a novel means of therapy.
Summary: The stoichiometry of competing target mRNAs (Nrn1 and Gap43), RNA-binding protein levels (HuD), and affinity of mRNA–RNA-binding protein interactions contribute to the efficiency of axonal mRNA localization elements.
Highlighted Article: EFA6 is shown to reside in the axon initial segment, where it functions to prevent growth-promoting molecules from entering mature CNS axons. Removing EFA6 elevates the regenerative potential of the axon.
Human microcephaly ASPM protein is a spindle pole-focusing factor that functions redundantly with CDK5RAP2
Summary: Mutations in the ASPM or CDK5RAP2 gene have been identified in familial microcephaly patients. We show that ASPM and CDK5RAP2 redundantly focus mitotic spindle poles in human tissue culture cells.
The DUX4 homeodomains mediate inhibition of myogenesis and are functionally exchangeable with the Pax7 homeodomain
Highlighted Article: The facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy-associated protein DUX4 inhibits myogenic differentiation via its homeodomains, which bear similarity to, and can be exchanged with, those of the muscle stem cell master regulator, Pax7.
Summary: Loss of integrin α8 or protocadherin-15 in hair cells results in kinociliary defects associated with Rhoa inactivation and mislocalization of specific ciliary markers.
Highlighted Article: Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) regulates Ca2+ release from the ER. Although sAC domains in ER and mitochondria are distinct, Ca2+ release from the ER provides a functional link between the two organelles.
Endogenous signalling pathways and caged IP3 evoke Ca2+ puffs at the same abundant immobile intracellular sites
Summary: Ca2+ puffs are the building blocks for IP3-evoked Ca2+ signals. Ca2+ puffs evoked by caged IP3 or via endogenous signalling pathways initiate at the same fixed intracellular sites.
Reversing thyroid-hormone-mediated repression of a HSV-1 promoter via computationally guided mutagenesis
Summary: Thyroid hormone and its receptor mediate downregulation of HSV-1 thymidine kinase, which is reversed after a computationally guided point mutation disrupts the receptor binding element in neuron-like cell culture.
DNA-dependent protein kinase plays a central role in transformation of breast epithelial cells following alkylation damage
Summary: Alkylation damage induced cellular transformation in breast acinar cultures, which was partially rescued by DNA-PK inhibition.
Summary: Kindlin supports integrin αIIbβ3 activation by forming a complex with paxillin and talin and thus enhancing talin binding to integrin.