IN THIS ISSUE
CELL SCIENTISTS TO WATCH
CELL SCIENCE AT A GLANCE
Summary: The morphological diversity and distinct dynamics of mammalian actin structures are established by coordinating the targeting and activation of actin filament nucleators, elongators and associated myosin motor proteins.
A rim-and-spoke hypothesis to explain the biomechanical roles for cytoplasmic intermediate filament networks
Summary: The cytoplasmic intermediate filament comprises a rim and spoke arrangement supporting the plasma membrane and connecting to the nucleus, to deliver their mechanosensory functions.
Summary: Lack of OCRL elevates PI(4,5)P2 levels in primary cilia of human patient cells and cells from a mouse model of Lowe syndrome, supporting a role for OCRL in ciliary phosphoinositide regulation.
Highlighted Article: Melanoma cells can create and follow their own gradients of attractant, via a new mechanism by which tumour cells may undergo metastasis.
Summary: Mitochondria undergo retrograde trafficking in response to proteasome inhibition. Disruption of the mitochondrial PGAM5-KEAP1-Nrf2 complex leads to degradation of the mitochondrial GTPase Miro2 and inhibition of stress-induced mitochondrial trafficking.
Highlighted Article: The deubiquitylase USP10 regulates αv integrin protein levels, fibrotic markers and myofibroblast persistence in a wound. Ubiquitin-mediated pathways should thus be considered in the pathogenesis of fibrotic healing.
C-terminal motifs in promyelocytic leukemia protein isoforms critically regulate PML nuclear body formation
Summary: The formation of PML-NBs, important sub-nuclear protein structures, is differentially regulated by the unique C-terminal portion of each PML isoform.
Highlighted Article: Disruption of Drosophila motor neuron Atlastin produces locomotor defects, axonal trafficking disorganization and synaptic dysfunction, providing insights into the cellular and pathological roles of neuronal atlastin in human spastic paraplegias.
Vinexin family (SORBS) proteins play different roles in stiffness-sensing and contractile force generation
Summary: Comparing the functions of vinexin family (SORBS) proteins reveals that vinexin-α and CAP regulate vinculin behavior depending on the stiffness of the extracellular matrix, while ArgBP2 plays a role in generating greater contractile forces.
Highlighted Article: Optogenetics show that the interaction of kindlin-2 with β3 integrin and other binding partners supports endothelial cell functions relevant to angiogenesis, including sprouting and podosome formation.
LDL switches the LRP6 internalization route from flotillin dependent to clathrin dependent in hepatic cells
Summary: LRP6 is transcytosed with Niemann–Pick C1-like 1 protein, which mediates cholesterol absorption from the bile, to the apical membrane of hepatic cells, and LDL alters LRP6 trafficking to the lysosome.
Sequential activities of Dynein, Mud and Asp in centrosome–spindle coupling maintain centrosome number upon mitosis
Highlighted Article: Centrosomes are tightly coupled to the bipolar spindle. In Drosophila, Dynein and Mud initiate the centrosome–spindle coupling during prophase, whereas Asp is necessary to maintain it during metaphase.
Arl8b is required for lysosomal degradation of maternal proteins in the visceral yolk sac endoderm of mouse embryos
Summary: The small GTPase Arl8b, known to be involved in lysosomal function, contributes to mouse embryonic growth by mediating lysosomal degradation of maternal proteins in the visceral yolk sac endoderm.
Lipopolysaccharide modulates p300 and Sirt1 to promote PRMT1 stability via an SCFFbxl17-recognized acetyldegron
Summary: Bacteria-derived endotoxin LPS downregulates both the acetyltransferase p300 and the deacetylase Sirt1 to promote PRMT1 protein stability via an SCFFbxl17 E3 ligase-recognized acetydegron that augments bronchial epithelial cell overgrowth.
Association of FK506 binding proteins with RyR channels – effect of CLIC2 binding on sub-conductance opening and FKBP binding
Summary: FK506 binding proteins influence RyR gating and this contributes to excess Ca2+ release in the CLIC2 RyR channelopathy.